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Cells and Organelles

Covers cell types (prokaryotes/eukaryotes with examples) and the organelles found within them.
by

Peter Hopkins

on 22 February 2011

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Transcript of Cells and Organelles

How are cells classified?
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Types of Cells
Organelles
= 'tiny organs' that have specific functions within a cell
Cell Theory
Why are cells small?
How big is a micrometer?
1mm = 1000um
How small is really small?

Cells are the fundamental unit of structure, function and organisation of all living things

A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions – like? (MRS GREN)

Cells form from pre-existing cells
Nucleus
Directs all cell activities
Contains instructions for everything the cell does

These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA

double mebrane with pores
Chloroplasts
found only in plant cells

Green organelles (due to pigment called chlorophyll) that synthesise glucose (photosynthesis)

have a double membrane
Mitochondria
Organelles convert glucose into ATP (cellular respiration)

= the powerhouse of the cell

Some muscle cells have 20,000 mitochondria

have a double membrane
Prokaryote cells
no nucleus
smaller (0.1-10um)
more simple (no membrane bound organelles)
eg. bacterial cells
Cells
and
Organelles

Eukaryote cells
have a nucleus
larger (10-100um)
more complex;have membrane bound organelles
eg. plant and animal cells
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis

Float freely in cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Ribosome's are made in the nucleolus

no membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of folded membranes that move materials (often proteins) around in a cell

like a conveyor belt

Smooth ER – no ribosomes attached

Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER
Golgi Body (golgee)
Stacked flattened membranes

Packaging and secretion (exocytosis) of proteins and carbohydrates

Salivary gland cells
Vaculoles
Temporary storage spaces

Prominent (and vital) in plant cells (much smaller in animal cells)

Store food, water, waste
to keep their surface area to volume ratio as LARGE as possible; think babies in cars in hot days....
Why? Lets do a few calculations....
Full transcript