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Cells and Organelles
Transcript of Cells and Organelles
Types of Cells
= 'tiny organs' that have specific functions within a cell
Why are cells small?
How big is a micrometer?
1mm = 1000um
How small is really small?
Cells are the fundamental unit of structure, function and organisation of all living things
A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions – like? (MRS GREN)
Cells form from pre-existing cells
Directs all cell activities
Contains instructions for everything the cell does
These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA
double mebrane with pores
found only in plant cells
Green organelles (due to pigment called chlorophyll) that synthesise glucose (photosynthesis)
have a double membrane
Organelles convert glucose into ATP (cellular respiration)
= the powerhouse of the cell
Some muscle cells have 20,000 mitochondria
have a double membrane
more simple (no membrane bound organelles)
eg. bacterial cells
have a nucleus
more complex;have membrane bound organelles
eg. plant and animal cells
Site of protein synthesis
Float freely in cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Ribosome's are made in the nucleolus
A series of folded membranes that move materials (often proteins) around in a cell
like a conveyor belt
Smooth ER – no ribosomes attached
Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER
Golgi Body (golgee)
Stacked flattened membranes
Packaging and secretion (exocytosis) of proteins and carbohydrates
Salivary gland cells
Temporary storage spaces
Prominent (and vital) in plant cells (much smaller in animal cells)
Store food, water, waste
to keep their surface area to volume ratio as LARGE as possible; think babies in cars in hot days....
Why? Lets do a few calculations....