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Copy of Anti-thrombocytopenic Effects of Durian

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Kathlyn Ann Villareal

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Anti-thrombocytopenic Effects of Durian

Anti-thrombocytopenic Effects of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Aril in Hydroxyurea-induced Thrombocytopenic Albino Rats
Tannins
Stimulus for aggregation and secretion of thrombocytes and kindles the phosphorylation of 19-kD and 47-kD platelets cystosolic proteins
-Lauque, Prevost, Carles & Chap, 1991
Hydroxyuxrea
An anti-neoplastic drug that inhibits the DNA synthesis
-Brenner & Stevens, 2010
Was used in the induction of thrombocytopenia to rats in the study conducted by Gamulle et al.
Statement of the Problem
Hypothesis
The hypotheses for this study are:
Ha:
There is a significant increase in platelet count after the administration of lyophilized D. zibethinus in hydroxyurea-induced thrombocytopenic rats.
There is a significant difference in the increase of platelet count between water and lyophilized D. zibethinus when administered to thrombocytopenic rats.

Conceptual framework
PHASE 1
PHASE 3
PHASE 2
GROUP
GROUP
NEGATIVE
CONTROL
GROUP

POSITIVE CONTROL
GROUP

EXPERIMENTAL
GROUP
Biological Assay on Rat Models
TIME CONTROL
What is the percent change of platelet values from the baseline to the last blood collection in the groups A, B, C & D
. Is there a significant difference in the increase of platelet values of the thrombocytopenic rats between the treatment of water and durian aril?
Weighing of rats
Statistical Treatment
Two-Way Analysis of Variance was used to compare the effects of different treatments and Post-Hoc analysis was used to determine if there is a significant difference on the treatment that exhibits anti-thrombocytopenic effect. The level of significance must not exceed 0.05.
GROUP C
GROUP D
1mL of water
100mg/kg of Durian extract
RESULTS
Baseline
First blood collection
Second blood collection
Percent change
Discussion
Conclusion
In the findings of the study, it is concluded that there were significant increase and decrease in the platelet values of rats in the negative control, positive control and experimental groups and no significant increase and decrease in the time control group. The negative control group showed a significant decrease in the platelet counts from the baseline to the last blood collection. The rats in the positive control group and experimental group exhibited a significant increase in platelet count after administration of lyophilized durian extract and water to thrombocytopenic rats. In addition, the time control group did not show any significant increase or decrease in platelet counts since the rats have not undergone any manipulation. It is also concluded that there is no significant difference in the increase of platelet count between water and lyophilized durian extract
Recommendations:
1. Conduct high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantitate the amount of
tannin present in durian.
2. Determine the histopathologic changes after administration of hydroxyurea and durian aril extract.
3. Use larger sample size to determine the reliability of this study.
4. Use other varieties of durian.
5. Administer pure durian aril or isolate specific phytochemical component.


TIME CONTROL GROUP

In this group, no thrombocytopenic agents were administered and the platelet values of albino rats were observed according to its physiologic behavior. From baseline to the second blood collection value, there was neither significant decrease nor increase in the platelet count. This was also observed in the third blood collection in the two trials. It shows that the platelet count of albino rats were constant and within the normal range. Based on the Post Hoc Duncan’s test result, there is no significant change in the platelet count of the albino rats in the three blood collections.

THROMBOCYTOPENIC RATS WITHOUT WATER
In this group, hydroxyurea was administered to albino rats, which is a potent drug to induce thrombocytopenia (Brenner & Stevens, 2010). The platelet count of the albino rats dropped significantly from baseline to second blood collection and continued to drop until third blood collection. It showed that the thrombocytopenic effect of hydroxyurea at a concentration of 1.5mg/kg is fast acting just within 24 hours of administration. Based on the Post Hoc Duncan’s test result, there is a significant decrease I n the platelet count of the albino rats from the baseline to the second blood collection and shows a significant decrease in the third collection. It also shows that the platelet decrease caused by hydroxyurea is not well compensated by albino rats within the five-day period. According to the study of Brenner and Stevens in 2010, the thrombocytopenic effect of hydroxyurea lasts for 7 to 10 days.

Thrombocytopenic Rats Treated with Water

In this group, rats were administered with hydroxyurea in the second phase of blood collection and 1 milliliter of water in the last blood collection. Water was used as positive treatment, for it is considered by WHO (2012), as a management of thrombocytopenia. Based on the Post Hoc Duncan’s test result, there is a significant increase in the platelet count of the albino rats after the administration of water. It shows that the compensatory mechanism of albino rats towards thrombocytopenia was enhanced upon administration of water. This is in parallel with the results of the study of Apostol et al. (2012).
Thrombocytopenic Rats Treated with D. zibethinus
In this group, rats were administered with hydroxyurea in the second phase of blood collection and 100mg/kg of D. zibethinus in the last blood collection. D. zibethinus is very well known in the Philippines, particularly in the Davao Region, which became a hit as a remedy for dengue. Durian contains phytochemicals such as tannin, which are effective anti-viral agents (Chung et al., 1998). In this study no HPLC and phytochemical screening was performed and was based on the study of Avila et al. (2012) who characterized the polyphenolic properties of durian using qualitative and quantitative HPLC analysis. Based on the Post Hoc Duncan’s test result, there is a significant increase in the platelet count of the albino rats after the administration of lyophilized D. zibethinus. It shows that the compensatory mechanism of albino rats towards thrombocytopenia was enhanced upon administration of the lyophilized D. zibethinus.
POSITIVE TREATMENT vs. EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT
Based on the Post Hoc Duncan’s test result, water treatment and lyophilized durian aril has almost the same action towards thrombocytopenia. The water and lyophilized durian aril treatment is located in the same subset during the third stage measurement. It means that the platelet count increase brought about by water is similar to that of the lyophilized durian aril therefore there is no significant difference between their anti-thrombocytopenic effect.
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