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Year 13 Physical Education

Summary of Notes and information for Y13 Physical Education

Kurt Kennedy

on 4 April 2011

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Transcript of Year 13 Physical Education

AS3.3 Biomechanics Motor Learning Newtons Laws Force Summation Levers Balance and Stability Projectile
To give an object momentum eg throwing, kicking, hitting, the amount of momentum given to the object is determined by the ‘sum of all forces generated by each body part’. Five Basic Guidelines to generate optimal force:
1.Use of body segments - more = more force generation
2.Stretch out stretch receptors cause larger force geneation
3.Sequencing of Body segments larger first
4.Timing of Body Segments ie coordination
5.Full Range of Motion
Definition This is defined as "the ability to hold or maintain a position in space."
Note balance may be static or dynamic. Notes Stability generally depends on:
The location of the centre of gravity (COG) with respect to the base of support.
The direction of forces involved

Centre of Gravity is the point in the body at which all body parts are in balance.
In the anatomical position males generally have a higher COG than woman.
The body rotates around the COG
4 Principles 1.The closer the line of gravity is to the centre of the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance

2. The broader the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance.

3. Our balance is improved when we lower our Centre of Gravity in relation to the base of support.

4. The further one part of the body moves away from the line of gravity, the probability of maintaining balance decreases unless another body part moves to compensate for it.
Notes We can further increase stability:
•Increase Friction eg surfboard wax, sprigs on boots
•Lean into an incoming Force eg lean into a tackle
•Increase Rotation eg spin faster
•Increase Mass eg get bigger!
Notes Video Video First Law Second Law Third Law An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless it is acted on by an external force.

An object in motion tends to remain in motion and to travel in a straight line with uniform velocity unless acted on by an external force
When a force acts on a body, it’s resulting change in momentum is proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass

Force = Mass x Acceleration
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Video Definition Biomechanics studies what makes a body move. It studies internal and external forces (remember a force is a push or a pull) that act on the body and other objects. It is possible to work out how your body should move in order to perform a task more efficiently. So for example we can use biomechanics to make you a better player! Video Video Definition Any object released into the air is a projectile. Eg ball in squash, person in highjump Notes Six Factors Affect a Projectile’s Path
2.Air resistance
3.Speed of Release
4.Angle of Release
5.Height of Release
•Of the six, the most important factors are Gravity which acts to decrease the height a projectile will travel and Air Resistance which acts to decrease distance.
•Note a projectile will travel in a parabolic curve unless acted on by another influence
Notes Gravity
Effects an object at a constant of 10N
Gravity is a weak attractive force but we cannot escape it!

Air Resistance
Effects the path of a projectile depending on its mass, speed and/or surface area.
Eg Graph the path of a petanque ball vs a shuttlecock

Speed of release
The greater the speed of release, the greater the distance traveled.
Two Parts: Initial Vertical Speed and Initial Horizontal Speed
The greater the vertical speed: the higher and longer (time) the projectile will fly.
The greater the horizontal speed: the further it will fly.
Remember Newton’s Second Law:
Force = Mass x Acceleration
To increase force can increase one or both. How?

Angle of Release
You need an optimum angle to maximise the benefits of vertical and horizontal velocity.
If the angle is too high:
If the angle is too low

Height of Release
As the Height of Release increases, so does the distance that will be gained.
Not really relevant in bowls but definitely in Petanque – How?

In order to cause rotation a force has to be applied to one side of the COG.
Topspin Causes:
Backspin Causes:
Motor Skills
Reasonably complex physical movements requiring the coordination of body movements in order to complete a task efficiently

Motor Skill Learning
The relatively permanent reorganisation of bodily movements to complete a movement task more efficiently
Definition Phases of Learning Skilled Performers Classification of Skills Subroutines Factors Affecting Skill Learning Cognitive Phase-Beginner, needs to know how to do skill. Needs simple instructions and demonstration. Progresses to next stage once they have a rough idea of what to do and how to do it.

Associative Phase – Intermediate. Understands how to do it but needs practice. Needs task specific demonstrations and feedback. Progresses once skills are almoct automatic.

Autonomous Phase – Advanced. Skills are automatic. Expert coaching and feedback are essential.

Note: a learner can move backwards as well through lack of practice or eg injury
Bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty and with minimum outlay of time and energy

•A specific goal
•Complex sequence of activities
•Organisation of muscular movements through time and space
•Learning through feedback and practice
Thinking and recognition, interpretation (of environment, opposition etc), Selection of response.
Skills may be classified across 3 main continuums:

Open (stable environ, changing conditions, externally paced )
Closed (unstable environ, unchanging, self paced

Gross (large body parts, large force)
Fine (small body parts, small force)

Simple (Discrete - simple mvt, distinct start and finish)
Complex (made up of a numbe of simple skills)
A Motor Programme (an entire movement) may be broken down into a number of related actions (Sub Routines) that, when combined in the correct order and with proper coordination will produce the desired movement
Eg Tennis serve Sub Routines:
Back Swing
Forward Swing
Angle of Racket head
Contact with Ball
Follow Through
Type of Practice Learning Style Feedback Perhaps the most important learning tool
Reinforcement (of good habits)
Regulation or change of behaviour
Types of Feedback
Internal – how something feels
External – Info via the senses – visual, aural, touch

Positive – successful outcome or information reinforces performance
Negative – unsuccessful outcome tells learner that changes must be made or unhelpful information

Continuous – Info received as the skill is performed
Discrete – information received once the skill is completed

Knowledge of Performance – info received about the execution of the skill. ie did it well or badly
Knowledge of Results – info received about the outcome
We all learn in different ways. Finding the best way that we learn can help us to create the best possible learning environment.
Generally 3 main groups:

Visual (seeing)
Auditory (hearing)
Kinesthetic (doing)
Obviously the way in which we are taught the skill will affect the way that we learn. There are a number of different Methods of Skill Learning:

Whole vs Part Learning
Self discovery vs guided instruction
Massed vs Distributed Practice
Drill vs Problem Solving
Mental vs Physical Rehersal

Fitness having a higher level of fitness has been shown to improve concentration and physical performance. Learners can work for longer before tiring. Learning
Environment can enhance or detract from skill learning.
coach is the key figure in cerating the environment also team culture. Coaching style and approach are vital Transfer of Learning Many sports have basic skills in common. Something learned in one sport can help in another.
Sometimes this may also make it diffiult to adapt if a skill is ingrained. Existing Skill Level Learners have different levels of skills, coordination, balance, speed etc. This can affect an individuals ability to learn and perform skills Definition Notes For your arm, leg or any body part to move the appropriate muscles and bones must work together as a series of levers. A lever comprises of three components -

•Fulcrum or pivot - the point about which the lever rotates
•Load - the force applied by the lever system
•Effort - the force applied by the user of the lever system
The way in which a lever will operate is dependent on the type of lever.

Classification of Levers
•Class 1 - The fulcrum lies between the effort and the load
•Class 2 - The fulcrum is at one end, the effort at the other end and the load lies between the effort and the fulcrum
•Class 3 - The fulcrum is at one end, the load at the other end and the effort lies between the load and the fulcrum Class One Lever Class Two Lever Class Three Lever The fulcrum is between the effort and the load The fulcrum is at one end, the effort at the other The fulcrum is at one end, the load at the other end and the effort lies between the load and the fulcrum Programme Design and Evaluation
As3.1 and 3.2 Components of Fitness Principles of Training Methods of Training Designing your training programme Anatomy and Physiology Considerations Consider the force applied to a smash versus a drop shot and the resulting acceleration of the ball Note that most levers in the body are class 3 levers Want more help? Watch this video by clicking on it Want more help? Click on this video Health Related
Minimal needed for health Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Muscular Endurance
Flexibility (or suppleness)
Body Composition
Skill Related Power
Reaction Time
The ability of the circulatory system to deliver O2 muscles need. The ability of muscles to repeat contractions without tiring A combination of muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. The ability of the body to go for long periods without tiring The force muscles exert when they contract The range of motion in a joint The percentages of fat and lean tissue in your body Progression Overload Specificity Frequency Intensity Duration Regularity Reversibility As the level of fitness of the athlete improves the demands put on that person in training are increased to keep challenging them physically and to keep improving the level of fitness Occurs when an athlete exercises at a level above that which he/she can normally work at comfortably Any programme of exercise must be specific to the activity in which that athlete is involved Refers to how often an athlete should exercise to get some benefit from training and to maintain or improve fitness Refers to how hard a person works during exercise and may be calculated as a percentage of their maximum effort or their maximum heart rate The length of one training session or an entire programme. If a session is too long/short an athlete will not benefit. The length of a programme can depend on the stage of the season the athlete has reached. Involves the athlete meeting the frequency of training for the duration of the training programme. Without regular exercise the desired progress wouldn’t be made and training effects not gained. Training effect can be lost of an athlete stops training – what happens if an athlete is injured? Continuous Training training which is continuous (or non stop) during which the HR is in the correct training zone. Oxygen is the fuel. Generally used to improve Cardiovascular and Muscular Endurance. Examples include running, cycling, aerobics. May include Long Slow Distance. Or Fartlek Training (changing intensity within the continuous training) Circuit Training training based on completion of a series of exercises. A very flexible Method of Training as can be used for many Components of Fitness. Interval Training involves specific periods of activity followed by rest periods. The time of the work and rest periods can be changed. Usually done in sets. Depending on the work rest intervals can be used for Speed or Muscular Endurance. Resistance Training when some sort of resistance is used, usually weights, to develop the muscles. Usually used for Muscular Strength, Power, Endurance. Usually completed in sets and repetitions to a % a maximum. Plyometric Training the use of jumping and bounding movements to increase power. The key is to do explosive activities that use fast twitch fibres. Often used to improve Muscular Power. Specific Sport Training for eg skills, speed agility etc Initially when designing a fitness or training programme it is important to identify the Components of Fitness that need to be worked on in your your sport or activity.
Once these have been identified, you then test where you are with these using relevant fitness testing to creat a baseline and identify strengths and weaknesses. SMART goals are identified and set.
Based of these strengths and weaknesses a programme of training is designed using appropriate Methods of Training. It is vital to the success of a programme that the Principles of Training are followed.
Regular fitness testing monitors progress towards goals. A combination of strength and speed The time taken to respond to a stimulus The ability to hold a position without wobbling or falling over The ability to move body parts smoothly and accurately in response to your senses The ability to move your body or part of your body quickly The ability to change the body’s position and direction fast Evaluation The evaluation part of the assessment is for AS3.2 which is worth three credits. You need to ensure that you follow the instructions carefully and understand what is meant by the key terms below. Note that for all levels of achievement, you need supporting evidence. That is direct reference to your training logs. eg: As can be seen in my run on 20th March....
Explain Evaluate Critically Evaluate to clarify the description with more detail made clear with reasons how?, what?, why? Determine the value/quality/quantity of information
Consider Pro’s and Con’s
Compare/contrast and explain how factors interact.
To reflect (when planning)
means showing synthesis, evaluating against something, make a valid judgement based on personal experience, readings, gathered information.
What worked, why, why not
what assumptions were challenged and how did you do that?
Was there anything else you could have done
personal idea backed up with reasoning.
Solutions you think will change things based on critical and creative thinking.
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