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Climate Change and Bangladesh:

Impact and Adaptation

Atandra Abrar Ahmed

on 4 March 2015

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Transcript of Climate Change and Bangladesh:

Climate Change and Bangladesh:
Impact and Adaptation

Contents to be discussed:

Impacts of climate change on Bangladesh

Adaptive measures taken by Bangladesh

Government policy in Bangladesh about climate change

Future threats and measures

Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in:
wind patterns,
among other effects, that occur over several decades or longer

It is based on data that spans thousands of years, collected and analyzed using various scientific methods.
Climate Change and the Greenhouse Effect
The major cause of climate change is global warming caused by the Greenhouse Effect, which is caused by gases known as the greenhouse gases.

They are:

Carbon dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
How the Greenhouse Effect causes Climate Change:
Bangladesh: An overview.
Bangladesh is trapped between the Himalayas in the north and the encroaching Bay of Bengal to the south.

Bangladesh is most vulnerable to natural disasters due to the frequency of extreme climate events and its high population density.

According to National Geographic, Bangladesh ranks first as the nation most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades.
Roll Name
01 - Atandra Abrar Ahmed
02 - Maliha Binte Mohiuddin
03 - Farzana Maria Turna
49 - Ringkheng Kubi
51 - Md. Al-Muid
Presented by:
Source: EPA, 2014.
Source: Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press
Source: Climatechange.govt.nz
Humans release more and more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and this leads to global warming.

Global warming then causes climate change.

Source: David Braun (October 20, 2010). "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds". National Geographic.

Source: ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Bangladesh and Climate Change
Dr.Tamanna Afrin, 2012
Climate change is expected to trigger a migration like no other.

Experts expect about 250 million people worldwide to move by 2050. Of those, 20 million to 30 million climate change refugees are expected to be in Bangladesh, likely the largest number from one place.

Source: Raveena Aulakh, Environment, Feb 2013
Source: Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action plan, Ministry of Environment and forest, GoB, 2009
Immediate Impacts on Bangladesh:
Coastal Areas:

The Bay of Bengal is located at the tip of the north Indian Ocean, where severe Cyclonic storms as well as long Tidal waves are frequently generated

Almost one forth of the total population of the country live in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

With the rise of Sea-level up to one meter only, Bangladesh could lose up to 15% of its land area and around 30 million people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh could become Refugees because of Climate Change impacts.

Source: Friday, July 15, 2011 Daily Star
Economic sectors

The poor and vulnerable in Bangladesh are constantly adjusting to climate change by raising their houses above the flood level or changing crop types.

The Government of Bangladesh has invested more than $10 billion during the past 35 years to make Bangladesh less vulnerable to natural disasters.

Despite these efforts, the direct annual cost of natural disasters over the last 10 years is estimated to be between 0.5% and 1% of Bangladesh's GDP (UNDP).

The economic impacts of future climate change are expected to be larger and could even reverse the recent gains in the areas of economic growth and population control.

Source: World Bank, 2009
Agriculture and Fisheries:

The impacts of Climate Change such as - Extreme Temperature, Drought, and Salinity Intrusion etc. are also responsible for the declining crop yields in Bangladesh.

Temperature and Rainfall changes have already affected crop production in many parts of the country and the area of arable land has decreased to a great extent.

The Salinity intrusion in the coastal area is creating a serious implications for the coastal land that were traditionally used for rice production

The fisheries sector has also experienced an adverse affect because of the impacts of Climate Change. The fisheries sector contributes about 3.5% of the GDP in Bangladesh and people depend on fish products in order to meet up majority of their daily protein requirements.

There are around 260 species of fish in the country and almost all the varieties are sensitive to specific salt and freshwater conditions

Water Resources and Hydrology

In a high density country like Bangladesh, the effects of Climate Change on the Surface and Ground water resources will be very severe and alarming. Riverbank erosion is a constant presence.

Changes to water resources and hydrology will have a significant impact on the country’s economy, where people mostly depend on the Surface water for Irrigation, Fishery, Industrial production, Navigation and similar other activities.

Urban areas

Cities and Towns situated along the Coastal belt in Bangladesh are at the Front line of Climate Change related Disaster impacts and could experience severe damage directly because of the Sea level Rise and Storm Surges at any time.

As a consequence, it hampers usual productivity during and after major floods and hence increases the vulnerability of the urban poor by many folds.

It should be mentioned here that, around 40 per cent of the urban population in Bangladesh lives in the Slum and Squatter settlements of the major cities, which are highly vulnerable in times of flooding, raising the risk of disaster even higher.

Vulnerable groups

In Bangladesh, women are especially vulnerable because of the gender inequalities in the Socio-economic and Political institutions.

During the 1991 cyclone and storm surge in Bangladesh, the death rate in case of women was almost five times higher than the men, because men were able to communicate with each other in the public spaces, but the information did not reach most of the women timely.

Source: AKM Rezaul Karim, via Anne-Katrien Denissen, NDOC.NL, 2012
Source: ibid
Source: ibid
Floods, water-logging
The International Organization for Migration says about 70 per cent of the slum dwellers have come to Dhaka because of climate-change adversity
Nearly 60% of the slums in the city have poor or no drainage and are prone to frequent flooding
Famous for wetland area, but due to climate change those wetland is facing untimely flood, heavy flood and drought also.
Syhlet is bordered by the Meghalaya, Assam and Tripura states of India to the north, east and south, so it is on threat of flash flood frequently. Especially in monsoon the possibility of flash flood increases drastically. Heavy rainfall on upper basin induces the flash flood in Syhlet. In other hand hill degradation, unplanned cultivation, deforestation increases the damage caused by flash flood in this region.
Land slide and Cyclones
Land-slide in 2007 recognized as climate induce disaster but flash flood and land slide mostly related to human made soil erosion and deforestation.
Unplanned cultivation, hill degradation and deforestation are increasing the possibility of climate induce hazard.
Incidence of diarrhoea was found to have positive correlation with total annual rainfall in Rajshahi (drought prone) and Patuakhali (saline prone)
Skin diseases and malnutrition are also found to be positively correlated with temperature differentials in both Rajshahi and Patuakhali,
Source: ibid.
Rangpur region is close to the Himalayan mountain range, a moderate cold spell is sweeping over the region from midnight to morning.

Prof Dr Masum A Patwari, chief of the Geography and Environment Science at Begum Rokeya University in Rangpur, said: “The northern region of the country is experiencing the impact of global climate change.”

Barisal basically depends on agriculture. For that reason, climate change effects on crop yields will affect food production capability severely.
Without new coping strategies farmers will earn less from HYV rice production in many areas, including losses of 10.5 percent Barisal and 7.5 in Chittagong. Many upazilas have already suffered large yield losses and substantial price reductions from rising salinity, and this will continue as long as the sea-levels rise and salinity increases.
Source: Dhaka Tribune, 24 Sep 2014
Source: ibid.
Bangladesh is the country most at risk from the impacts of climate change, according to the 2013 Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) prepared by international consultancy firm Maplecroft.

Maplecroft has also calculated climate risks that will be faced by 50 cities around the world over the next 30 years. The study found five cities at “extreme risk”, of which three are in South Asia – Dhaka (in Bangladesh), Mumbai and Kolkata (both in India).
Source: Abdur Rahaman Rana, Bangladesh Youth Environment Safeguard, bd.news.com
Source: "Bangladesh faces biggest threats from climate change," The Third Pole, 04.11.2013
Climate change is perhaps the biggest problem facing the world in the 21st century.
It is a global issue, and can not be prevented from happening.
And, through scientific analysis and in-depth research, it has been found that:
The effects of climate change cannot be stopped.

Therefore, to survive, we must adapt to the changes.
Let's take a look at how Bangladesh is adapting to climate change.
Source: NAPA, 2009

Agriculture is perhaps the sector most threatened by climate change, as Bangladesh is still very much dependent on its agriculture to maintain its economy.
Recognizing that, significant research has been carried out to produce special kinds of crops that are resilient to high salinity, require less water in times of drought, and provide more yield faster:
Cultivation of suitable crops, fruits and different technology in drought prone areas:

Drought tolerant rice variety
: BRRI dhan 56, BRRI dhan 57
Short duration rice:
BRRI dhan 33, BRRI dhan 39, BINA dhan 7
Early rice variety:
BRRI dhan 42 and BRRI dhan 43
Drought tolerant fruits :
Jujube, pineapple and other fruits, maize, country bean etc
Source: "Adaptation Technologies to cope with climate change impact in Drought and Saline prone areas of Bangladesh", FAO representatives, Gobeshona.net, 2015.
Since the 1970s, the Government of Bangladesh, with the support of development partners, has invested in:

flood management schemes to raise agricultural productivity of low-lying rural areas and to protect them from extremely damaging severe floods;

flood protection and drainage schemes to protect urban areas from rainwater and river flooding ;

coastal embankment projects designed to raise agricultural productivity in coastal areas by preventing tidal flooding and incursion of saline water;

over 2,000 cyclone shelters to provide refuges for communities from storm surges and 200 shelters from river floods;

comprehensive disaster management projects, involving community-based programmes and early warning systems for floods and cyclones;

irrigation schemes to enable farmers to grow a dry season rice crop in areas subject to heavy monsoon flooding and in other parts of the country, including drought-prone areas;
Source: Bangladesh Climate Change and Strategy Action Plan, 2009 (newest)
Local Level Adaptation
The most common forms of private adaptation activities are:

temporary migration of adult men for day labor
construction of platforms to protect livestock
storage of food and drinking water prior to extreme events.

The preferred public adaptation activities from a local perspective include:

(a) environmental management (mangrove preservation, afforestation, coastal greenbelts);

(b) water resource management (drainage, rainwater harvesting, drinking water provision, and flood control);

(c) Infrastructure (roads, cyclone shelters);

(d) livelihood diversification and social protection for fishers during the cyclone season;

(e) education;

(f) agriculture, including development of salt-tolerant and high-yield varieties and crop insurance;

Source: Climate Change Issues in Bangladesh & Need for Adaptation to Climate Change, Dr. Fazle Rabbi Sadeque Ahmed, Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), April 2012
Whole Government Approach (WGA)
The Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund
Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) is a coordinated financing mechanism by the Government of Bangladesh, development partners and the World Bank to address the impacts of climate change.
established in May 2010
with financial support from Denmark, European Union, Sweden and United Kingdom. Switzerland, Australia and United States subsequently joined the fund.
This mechanism is enabling the Government to channel in over US$188million grant funds to millions of Bangladeshis to build their resilience to the effects of climate change.
The Bangladesh Government leads on the management and implementation of BCCRF.
Source: Whole of the Government Approach, A way to achieve Climate Change Mainstreaming in Bangladesh, Mamunur Rashid UNDP 2015
Source: (next slide)
Source: BCCRF website
Details of Projects Approved by the Management Committee for Preparation

(1) Emergency 2007 Cyclone Recovery and Restoration Project
(Multipurpose Cyclone Shelter Construction Project)

(2) Secretariat for BCCRF (Capacity Building Project Phase I)

(3) Community Climate Change Project (NGO Window)

(4) Supporting Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change

(5) Climate-Resilient Participatory Afforestation and Reforestation Project

(6) Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development Project II
(Solar Irrigation Project)

(7) Modern Food Storage Facilities Project
Source: Annual report, 2014 (Latest), retrieved from BCCRF website
Key Achievements:

• The governance structures of the Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) are established and operational.

• Contracts have been awarded for the construction of 61 new cyclone shelters under the Multipurpose Cyclone Shelter Construction Project (USD 25m), which is implemented by the Local Government Engineering Department.

• A grant agreement was signed in February 2013 for the Climate Resilient Participatory Afforestation and Reforestation Project (USD 33.8m), to be implemented by the Forest Department.

• The Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), a government-owned financing body, has been entrusted with the management of the Community Climate Change Programme (CCCP, USD 12.5m), which will provide grants to NGO-driven projects.

• The “Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development Project II” is a solar irrigation project that is also supported by the BCCRF, using solar irrigation pumps for farmers.

Source: Global Climate Change Alliance, EU, 2015
Now let's take a look at the Government's approach.
Future threats and measures:
The future is unpredictable, yet one thing is certain:

climate change is an inevitable threat, and Bangladesh is doing all it can to adjust and adapt to the hardships that it faces.
Recognizing the increased future vulnerability of its development objectives to climate change, the Government of Bangladesh prepared the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) in 2005.

Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan first prepared in 2008, modified and approved by the
Government in 2009 with wide consultation with
Government and non government sector, community based organization, development partners, experts, academia etc.
BCCSAP – 2009 is a one of the first landmark documents among the developing countries.

SOURCE: Climate Change Issues in Bangladesh & Need for Adaptation to Climate Change Dr. Fazle Rabbi Sadeque Ahmed, Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF)

Near term

Addressing current climate-related risks

Research and Knowledge Building

Medium to Long Term

Sound development policies

Adjustment of design standards for infrastructure

Development of climate-resilient cultivars and cropping

Improved governance and stakeholder participation

Strengthened regional cooperation

Source: Dr. Fazle Rabbi Sadeque Ahmed, Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), April 2012

agricultural research programmes to develop saline, drought and flood-adapted high yielding varieties of rice and other crops, based on the traditional varieties evolved over centuries by Bangladeshi farmers;

coastal 'greenbelt' projects, involving mangrove planting along nearly 9,000 km of the shoreline.

(g) fisheries, including storm-resistant boats and conflict resolution between shrimp and rice farmers;

Indigenous knowledge and methods are also used in local-level adaptation.
Source: ibid.
Source: ibid.
In the end...
Source: Shutterstock
It is ultimately up to us, as individuals, to do our own parts to save the world.

While public and private methods may help the masses, we can all do our own bit to slow down climate change.

Don't waste water or electricity.
Walk, or use a bicycle as often as possible.
Eat less meat.
Support renewable energy sources.
As a small, developing nation, Bangladesh will always face challenges.

But unity and adaptability will build resilience for us in the long run.
Let's save our home!
Source: Pulitzer Centre, Retrieved from Youtube
Full transcript