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Investigative Journalism

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Carolyn Mohr

on 26 October 2016

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Transcript of Investigative Journalism


Yellow Journalism
Sensationalism rather than facts...
Yellow Journalism is a term first coined during the famous newspaper wars between William Randolph Hearst (right) and Joseph Pulitzer II (left).
Pulitzer's paper the New York World and Hearst's New York Journal changed the content of newspapers adding more sensationalized stories and increasing the use of drawings and cartoons.
More cartoons...

Richard F. Outcault's 'Yellow Kid,' was a comic that appeared in Hearst's Journal. It was wildly popular in New York.
In 1896, Pulitzer hired Outcault away from Hearst and the Yellow Kids was now published in the World.
The Yellow Kid, along with Hearst's warnings in his San Francisco Chronicle, about the 'yellow peril' of Asian immigration, helped give this new brand of newspaper a denigrating name: 'yellow journalism.'
Hearst and Pulitzer's fame, and the circulation of their newspapers, grew subsequently through their sensationalistic coverage of the Spanish-American War.

Information from 1997, Rebecca Edwards, Vassar College.

Key to a sense of rage propagated by the media were the events of February 1898, which culminated with the destruction of an American battleship, the USS Maine, in a Cuban harbor.
1996-2001 by John Baker
"Effects of the Press on Spanish-American Relations in 1898" Humbolt University.
The Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a turning point in American history. Within a few years of the war's end, the United States was a world power, exercising control or influence over islands in the Caribbean Sea, the mid-Pacific Ocean and close to the Asian mainland.
The conflict has sometimes been called "The Newspaper War," largely because the influence of a sensationalist press -- "Yellow Journalism" -- supposedly brought on the fighting.
The media sensationalized the events in February and the two months following until war began, prompting a debate that still rages -- whether the press merely reflected the public's desire for war, or, in fact, actually fed it.
Image from spanamwar.com
"Joseph Pulitzer." Life. Nov. 1897 Vol. 30: 459.
"Putting Yellow Journalism in Its Place." Puck. 17 August 1898: cover.
"Yellow Journal Cook-Book." Life. April 1898 Vol. 31: 360.
Distaste over Yellow Journalism
A February Post report "Urges the Public to Be Calm" in the face of "fake reports" by the yellow press: "Thus far the question of war with Spain has been made alarmingly sensational only by the few yellow-kid newspapers of the country, which are ready to sacrifice the truth and inflame popular prejudices to open wider markets for the reading of journals which each day must contradict what they published before."
"Spirit of American Press/Representative Newspapers Deprecare Jingoism and Urge the Public to Be Calm." Washington Post. 25 Feb. 1898. The Washington Post: 4.
Yellow Journalism
The Progressive Era - Muckrakers
The Progressive Era
Muckraking - a term for reporters exposing injustices in society.

Muckrakers were reporters, authors, and critics who sought to expose social ills.
Jacob Riis
Wanted to expose impoverished living conditions of the lower-class. He would, however, often "stage" photographs, meaning he would ask his subject to move or pose in their environment.
The print revolution enabled publications to increase their subscriptions dramatically.

Publishing a series of articles (or photos) had a much more immediate impact than writing to Congress.
From ushistory.org
Upton Sinclair published The Jungle in 1905 to expose labor abuses in the meat packing industry. But it was food, not labor, that most concerned the public.
What is the relationship between the press and social change today?
Fall of the Berlin Wall.
2012 Modern American History WordPress.
Is there a difference between press and media? What about social media?
Theodore Roosevelt coined the term from the phrase "the Man with the Muck Rake, " a figure who would "rake to himself the filth of the floor" in John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
Broadcast Journalism
Uncovering Scandal
Broadcast Journalism
Edward Murrow was instrumental in the development of electronic newsgathering as a viable news source and as a profession.
Numerous reporters and journalists had attacked the Senator Joseph McCarthy for his "undemocratic persecution of alleged Communists." One of Murrow's most well-known pieces was when he address McCarthy on March 9, 1954.
From Edward Murrow's 1958 speech performed by David Strathairn in the film Good Night and Good Luck.
Uncovering Scandal
On June 17, 1972, burglars were arrested inside the Democratic National Committee office.
The burglars were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign. They had been caught while attempting to wiretap phones and steal secret documents.
While Nixon denied knowing anything about the break in, he took steps to cover it up, raising “hush money” for the burglars, trying to stop the FBI from investigating the crime, destroying evidence and firing uncooperative staff members
How does this connect to journalism?
It was journalists, NOT law enforcement, who uncovered the story.
1911 Joseph Pulitzer's will leaves $2 million to Columbia University to establish a graduate school of journalism and the Pulitzer Prize. The prizes have been awarded since 1917 recognizing achievements in journalism, literature and music.
1941 Orson Welles's movie about William Randolph Hearst, Citizen Kane, premieres in New York City.
Journalism's modern face
Journalism's Modern Face
How do we find information?
How do we share information?
Archive information?
What is worthy of sharing?
Is this newsworthy?
(CNN) -- YouTube: It's not just for cute cats anymore.

The Web's leading video site is now the home of a new kind of interactive visual journalism, where "citizen witnesses" are reaching millions of people with the news of the day, according to a new report from the Pew Research Center.

A prime example was the tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011. In the week following the earthquake that caused the deadly wave, the 20 most-watched news videos on YouTube received 96 million views, according to the report. Most of that footage came not from professionals but from users who were in the middle of the disaster that killed more than 18,000 people.

"Citizens are creating their own videos about news and posting them," read the report released Monday. "They are also actively sharing news videos produced by journalism professionals. And news organizations are taking advantage of citizen content and incorporating it into their journalism.
Report: YouTube hosting new breed of journalism
Journalism in pop culture
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