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Human Genome Project
Transcript of Human Genome Project
3-year plan to complete the project years early.. 2003 2001 First draft published in Science and Nature in February MOVING TO 2013 Finished Human Genome sequence published in Nature I P A M Future Challenges Emergence of molecular weapon References
Misuses of the knowledge about ourselves What are the NEXT Challenges? 2013 onwards Conclusions Endorsed by US National Research 1990 Human Genome Project started (NHGRI), continued by UK, France, Japan, Germany, China MEDICINE AGRICULTURE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT Create new, stronger and resistance to disease crops/animals. Clean up toxic waste Oil spill on the Ocean Bed THE STORY OF Human Genome Project THANK YOU "The project will comprise a resource of
detailed information about the structure, organization
and function of Human DNA, information that
constitutes the basic set of inherited "instructions" for
the development and functioning of human being" -HGP First proposed at US DOE meetings PROJECT GOALS Identify all the estimated 80,000 genes in the human DNA.
Determine the sequences of the 3 billion DNA chemical bases.
Store this information in databases
Develop tools for data analysis
Address the possible ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) C T DNA ANALYSIS & SEQUENCING Identification of the particular sequences & location of the gene that related with genetic disorders.
Diagnosis of genetic disorders : Colon cancer, Alzheimer's disease & breast cancer.
Detect genetic changes and disorders in early stage in order to treat it before too late.
Based on the findings & studies on the genome there is high chance to design a rational drug to treat the diseases.
Pharmacogenomics "custom drugs". . To produces high yield production.
. Develop biopesticides.
. Edible vaccine integrate with food products.
. Produce better food rich with nutrients. Biofuel Develop environmental monitoring techniques
to detect pollutants. Crime Scene Investigation.
Identify family relationship and paternity.
Help to match the organ donor with recipients for the transplants.
Understanding biological interactions and evolutionary history of all living organism. Concerns Ethical , Legal and Social Implications (ELSI)
Although there is HGP potentially and dramatically gives improve human health , there is rise in ethical , legal and social implications likewise :
How this information would be interpreted and used ?
Who would have to access to it ?
How can society prevent harm from improper use of genetic information ? If an insurance company or employer knew that the person was destined to develop an illness, could the person be denied health coverage or a job ? The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996
The act prohibited health insurers from excluding individuals from group coverage due to past or present medical problems, including genetic predisposition to certain diseases. Concerns Society discrimination against individuals based on their genetic make-up.
We still don’t know the long term effects of all the invention done.
Aborting child birth that have disease or Down syndrome. GMO Ethical concerns Loss of Biodiversity
Loss of natural mechanism of resistance to diseases.
"We are eating DNA"- Many not accept Even though we have cracked our head and figure it out about all the genes in human’s genome,
We still don’t know many things related to genes. The relationship between genes in one chromosome with another chromosome.
Function of all exons.
Total protein and interaction of protein.
Gene regulation : Epigenetics
Evolutionary conversation among organisms Christodoulou, J. (2003). The human genome project: opportunities, challenges and consequences for population screening. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 34 Suppl 3, 234–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15906744.
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409, 860–921 (2001).
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/benefits.shtml Team Effort by:
Sevwandie Deshanie, Ghajalacmi a/p Kullayiram, Kalai Vaani a/p Ramamoorthy, Shalini a/p Selvaraja, Shamini a/ p Thangaraju. A Decade Since & Prospect of Genomic Era Presented By : Sevwandi Deshanie (121415008)
Ghajalacmi a/p Kullayiram (B11030006)
Kalai Vaani a/p Ramamoorthy (121415004)
Shalini a/p Selvaraja (112415006)
Shamini a/p Thangaraju (B11030003) -Walter Gilbert
Nobel Price Winner for Chemistry in 1980 "It would take 15 years to sequence the Human genome, but predicted that it would take another 100 years of basic biological research to understand it." Synthetic Organisms Price of Sequencing