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wandering of the mind

Sarah Kruysman

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens What are they? drugs that change thought processes, moods, & perceptions alucinare History Movin' through the body Insane in the brain! Just for fun? Individual drugs Risky Business high doses -> perceive an event not actually happening
low doses -> disturbance of thought/emotion [to wander in mind] psychotomimetics
psychadelics {suggest they induce mental illness}
illusinogens psychadelic = "mind expanding"
entheogenic = finding "the god within" *variations of experience from one person to another* Categories LSD, serotonin-like Belladonna alkaloids dissociative anesthetics: ketamine, PCp Psilocybin mushrooms
ayahuasca use of this class of drugs is evident in plant remains across the globe Siberian hunters noticed abnormal behavior of deer grazing near mushrooms, decided to experiment, discovered fly agaric mushroom Rig-Veda, 3500 years ago Today... archeological evidence for peyote use LSD use fallen from 5% of high school seniors to
1.4 % (2005) increased law enforcement pressure
not typically fun typical users: white teenage males &
Native Americans (for religious purposes) Ritual use: herbal teas
application to skin
snuffs Egyptians most taken by mouth,
can be smoked, or injected into the body *time between taking drug & feeling effects, as well as how long drug lasts, depend on drug & person* stomach/ Intestines Brain Liver degrades LSD & peyote slowly, so drug lasts long time! (4-6 hrs, possibly 12) Psilocybin = 2-4 hrs DMT "business man's special" = 1 hr *the more fat soluble, the quicker it enters brain PCP: experience lasts 4-6 hrs, but remains in system
for 24-48 hrs Experience is individualized
depending on... [identity/amount,
previous experience,
environment] Common effects jitterines nausea mild increase in blood pressure, heart rate, & breathing slight distortion in sensory perception wavering images & distorted sizes At High doses... illusions & hallucinations
"out of body" experience
confusion of senses
distortion of time
anxiety video will cause dizziness enlightenment or entertainment? some cultures restrict drug use to only healing, enlightenment, prophecy purposes college students: new, exciting experience regular users: ENLIGHTENMENT Dr. Timothy Leary: potential therapeutic technique "One person's enlightenment can be another person's hell" p. 113 ... small LSD Psilocybin
Mushrooms DMT Peyote Cactus "Designer" Mescaline-like Ayahuasca Dissociative anesthetics belladonna alkaloids SAlvia Divinorum Dextromethorphan *Dextromethorphan and salvia divinorum are unique Dr. Albert Hoffman lysergic acid diethylamide How it comes lyserigic acid amide ololiuqui produced
from morning glory seeds ergot WHERE IT COMES FROM eFFECTS p. 99 in text long trips
rapid tolerance
increased dose = increased risk for bad trip *typical dose 20-80 micrograms* typical dose = 2-4 'shrooms milder, shorter LSD experience low doses:
physical heaviness/lightness
visual distortions high doses:
numbness of tongue, lips, mouth
anxiety dimethyltryptamine businessman's special total experience = 1 hour where it comes from beans of Anadenthera peregrina tree yopo/ cohoba glands of Colorado River Toad Effects anxiety
LSD-like experience
increased blood pressure/ heart rate
blurred vision
cramped muscles
temporary paralysis Mescaline resembles amphetamine in structure and symptoms mental effects similar to LSD nausea, vomiting common sensitivity to sensory images flashes of color time/space perception distorted NAtive American ritual use variations on structure of mescaline DOM aka STP 2, 5 dimethoxy-4-methylphenylisopropylamine MDA methylenedioxymethamphetamine DMA dimethoxyemphetamine MDMA (Ecstasy) methylenedioxymethamphetamine nutmeg & mace bark of Banisteriopsis caapi vine & leaves of Psychotria viridis tree Symptoms: intense nausea/ vomiting
hallucinations, dissociative experince mostly never used for fun, rather for enlightenment Phencyclidine Ketamine PCP, angel dust originally marketed as general anesthetic Sernyl rocks smoked like crack
laced marijuana joints
white powder
pills SOLD AS: TAKEN: orally
smoked main effects last 4-6 hrs, though can linger for days EFfects like being drunk, taking amphetamine, & taking a hallucinogen simultaneously increased blood pressure
increased body temperature
poor coordination
slurred speech
less sensitivity to pain
dissociative state (higher dose) Extremely high dosage:
muscle rigidity
general anesthesia
respiratory depression
high body temperature
high blood pressure
amnesia "Special K" drunken state (low dose) increased drunken state
loss of coordination
amnesia Higher dose: users describe the above effects as "going down into a K-hole" used as a veterinary anesthetic marketed as Ketalar from the plant Datura stramonium aka Jimsonweed atropine scopolamine responsible for effects outside brain responsible for effects on thought & perception effects mimics shutdown of parasympthathetic nervous system dry mouth
dilated pupils
heart rate increases
bronchioles dilate
digestion slows
increased body temperature
delirium usually remembered as a strange dream belladonna = beautiful woman term used in Middle Ages to dilate the eyes for enhanced beauty rare member of mint family Indians use for religious purposes users chew the leaves Illegal use in U.S.A. users smoke the leaves causes intense, unpleasant hallucinations
lasts about 1 hr
resembles neither LSD nor any other hallucinogen cousin of PCP & Ketamine excessive doses dissociative state can raise blood pressure & damage liver combination effects at toxic doses: confusion
increased body temperature
high blood pressure
nausea/vomiting identification never 100% positive on drug being taken LSD blotter paper probably LSD, no other drug is potent enough to be delivered this way pill/capsule/powder could be mixture of things mushrooms difficult to identify, can be lethal, cause fatal damage to liver/kidneys physical and
psychological problems little evidence that these drugs activate pelasure center, therefore addiction doesn't occur vital signs remain stable unless taken in extremely high dosages "bad trips" anxiety can bring out psychotic symptoms flashbacks posthallucinogenic perceptual disorder (PHPD) reemmergence of some part of hallucinogenic experience without drug more use, more likely flashbacks will occur research suggests LSD may cause changes in the brain, especially with sensory images Chromosomal damage concern raised in the 60's when women used LSD while pregnant & gave birth to children with defects historical use of ergot alkaloids to induce abortion, LSD doesn't have same effect Death belladonna alkaloids pose greatest risk PCP from overdose by: SArah kruysman Thank you for listening! How do they work? not 100% sure! research suggests that they temporarily interfere with neurotransmitter's action or they bind to receptor sites chemical structure similar to natural neurotransmitter
serotonin Source: Drug & Alcohol Rehab Services (DARS) [mood, anxiety] anxiety environment "magic mushrooms" combinations "Soma" any questions? "acid" combination of DMT & harmala alkaloid herbal tea made from: originally synthesized in lab, but derivatives produce similar effects blotter paper, microdots, window panes users today will make tea, or coat marijuana with DMT then smoke mild distortions blank stares
muscle cramping active agents { atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) mandragora officianarum (Mandrake root) "robo", "DXM" oneirogen = "dream producing" addiction and treatment no physical dependence cognitive impairments may have lasting effects Possible treament options: outpatient therapy 12-step support group (NA) partial hospitalization
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