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DIGITAL CULTURES 2: BUSINESS MODELS
Transcript of DIGITAL CULTURES 2: BUSINESS MODELS
How is cultural production impacted by the digital?
Changes in patterns of Production
Crowdsourcing & Crowdfunding
Producing content for multiple platforms
Transmedia or crossmedia
Changing Patterns of Distribution
On demand access to content
impact on advertising?
death of the schedule?
Search Engine Optimisation
Digital Projection Mapping
Changing Cost Models
Changes in patterns of Consumption
Subservient Chicken http://oneweakness.com/subservient-chicken
We're no longer in the business of simply producing content... but producing EXPERIENCES
Feed forward activity: Think of one 'traditional' area of cultural production (eg music, book publishing, magazines, video games, film, newspapers)
- What did the traditional value chain look like for this industry? How has it changed?
- Which companies are doing best in this new environment? Why? What are they doing differently? Who is not doing so well?
- Do searches for key terms like 'crowdfunding', 'digital marketing', 'transmedia', 'piracy', 'niches' and the 'long tail' in relation to your area of production. What does this reveal? [we could add these to our glossary...]
- How do social media figure within your discussions?
'Prosumption involves both production and consumption rather than focusing on either one (production) or the other (consumption)... a series of recent social changes, especially those associated with the internet and Web 2.0 (briefly, the user-generated web, e.g. Facebook, YouTube, Twitter), have given it even greater centrality'. (Ritzer and Jurgensen, 2010)
'The wisdom of crowds'
Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed problem-solving and production model (Brabham 2008)
The Value Chain
overviewing 'claims that the internet has helped to launch, in particular, a media economy based on niches and not mass markets, on flexibility and not on standardisation, on abundance and not scarcity, and on entrepreneurial start-ups and not on the industrial corporations that dominated the 20th century.' (Freedman, 2016)
So, is it all change or business as usual?
Depends on where you are standing
'many of the factors that were symptomatic of the 'mass' media economy - especially its propensity towards monopolisation, commodification and accumulation - are central to the dynamics of a new media economy shaped by the contradictory forces of the internet that promise dispersion but reward concentration and that fetishise openness but encourage proprietary behaviour.' [Des Freedman, 2012]
‘The pipes may be increasingly digital, but the piper is still being paid and looking to make a profit.’ [Des Freedman, 2012]
a.k.a. Production Chain
User-Generated Content, User-creativity, Micro-creativity, Active audiences etc
'the economics of abundance'
shift to digital production
...and the consequences
eg Netflix, Youtube Red
eg MegaShare, BitTorrent
eg Wordpress, Spotify
eg Wikipedia, Google Books
Back to ...
eg Second Screening
smart TV etc