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Political Parties, XYZ Affair, The Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark , and the War of 1812
Transcript of Political Parties, XYZ Affair, The Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark , and the War of 1812
In the election of 1796, more than one candidate ran for president.
The rivalry between two political parties dominated the election.
When Adams sent diplomats to France to help protect US shipping, the French foreign minister Talleyrand would not meet with them.
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each got 73 electoral votes, beating John Adams.
The House of Representatives elected Thomas Jefferson as president.
helped found the Federalist Party, which supported a strong federal government and supported industry and trade.
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison founded the Democratic-Republican Party.
Its members called themselves Republicans, but the party is NOT related to today's Republican Party.
Businessmen in the cities tended to support the Federalist Party
The Democratic-Republican Party was interested in limiting the federal government's power.
Farmers in isolated areas tended to support the Democratic-Republican Party.
John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1796. Adams became president and Jefferson became Vice-President.
Three French agents (X, Y, and Z) explained that Talleyrand would discuss a treaty in exchange for a $250,000 bribe and a loan of 12 million dollars.
The Americans refused to pay.
Outraged Federalists called for war with France saying, “Millions for defense, but not one penny for tribute.”
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Alien and Sedition Acts
Adams did not want to go to war with France.
He negotiated a peace treaty with France.
This made people in his own political party (the Federalist Party) angry.
Federalists controlled Congress.
Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts in order to crush opposition to war with France.
The Sedition Act forbade anyone from publishing or voicing criticism of the federal government.
The Election of
This was the first time one political party had replaced another political party in power.
The election led to the 12 th Amendment which created a separate ballot for president and vice president.
Marbury v. Madison
Before Jefferson took office, Adams appointed many federal judges.
Jefferson said that these appointments were not valid.
James Madison (Jefferson’s Secretary of the State) refused to deliver appointment papers.
William Marbury asked the Supreme Court to order Madison to deliver his appointment papers.
Marbury v. Madison helped establish the Supreme Court's power to check the power of the other two branches and the power to judicial review.
The Louisiana Purchase
Spain controlled Louisiana and New Orleans, but had trouble keeping Americans out of the territory.
In 1802, Spain closed New Orleans to American shipping. Spain made a secret deal to trade Louisiana with France.
France’s leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, had conquered most of Europe. France was at war with Great Britain and needed money for military supplies.
Jefferson was troubled by the decision. The Constitution did not mention the purchase of foreign lands and he did not like spending large amounts of public money.
Nevertheless, Jefferson agreed to the purchase of Louisiana because he thought it was best for the country. America doubled in size.
When the United States offered to buy New Orleans from the French, France offered to sell all of Louisiana.
In1803 the Senate approved the purchase of Louisiana for 15 million dollars.
In 1804, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark, and about 50 skilled frontiersman began their long journey to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Lewis and Clark
When Great Britain and France went to war in 1803, each country wanted to stop the United States from supplying goods to the other.
The British and French navies captured many American ships searching for war supplies. In addition, Britain began impressments (forcing people to serve in the army or navy) of US citizens.
(1) Increased national pride (patriotism)
(2) American manufacturing increased
(3) Native American resistance weakened
(4) Andrew Jackson became a war hero.
Effects of War of 1812
The explorers also established contact with many Native American groups and collected valuable information about plants and animals.
In November of 1805, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean.
They learned much about the western lands and paths across the Rocky Mountains.
Sacajawea (a Shoshone from the Rocky Mountains) and her husband (a French fur trader) joined the group and provided help with the trip across the Rocky Mountains.
Events Leading to the War of 1812
This is a big deal. American citizens serving in the British military!
In 1807, the United States passed the Embargo Act.
The law stopped trade with all foreign countries. The law was devastating to the US businesses and had little effect on the British and French.
Tecumesh was a Native American leader who hoped to unite the Native Americans of the northwestern frontier, the South, and the eastern Mississippi valley.
Tecumesh was defeated in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Evidence that the British had supported Techumesh made Americans angry with Great Britain.
The War of 1812
Several young members of Congress called for war against Great Britain. They were called War Hawks by their opponents. The War Hawks wanted to invade Canada and gain more land.
Businessmen in New England opposed war fearing that war would be bad for business. Others argued that the United States was not ready for war with Great Britain.
James Madison was elected president in the 1808.
In 1812, Madison decided that Congress must vote for war. Congress voted for war against Great Britain.
Madison was elected for a second term and served as commander in chief during the War of 1812.
Most of Britain’s army was scattered around the world.
Although the US navy was small, it had well-trained sailors and powerful new warships such as the USS Constitution (nicknamed “Old Ironsides).
The British attacked and burned Washington D.C., but US forces at Fort McHenry stopped the British invasion of Baltimore and the British retreated.
Francis Scott Key wrote, “The Star Spangled Banner” about the battle at Fort McHenry.
British and American representatives signed the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814.
Because communication was slow, the British and Americans fought in New Orleans in January 1815.
More than 2000 British soldiers were killed or wounded. The Americans suffered about 70 casualties. The war of 1812 made Andrew Jackson a hero.
He wanted to find a route to the Pacific Ocean