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Copy of History of Ceramics
Transcript of Copy of History of Ceramics
Using clay on a potter's wheel is called "throwing" the clay. Pinch...a method of hand building that involves inserting the thumb of one hand into the clay and lighty pinching with the thumb and fingers while slowly rotating the ball in the palm of the other hand. Pots made in this manner are called pinch pots. Clay is very fine particles of dirt which float in a stream or river and then sink to the bottom where they press on each other and stick together.
You generally find clay along the banks of a river or stream, wherever the river is pulling dirt down off the mountains or hills and dropping it in a quiet part of the river lower down.
So people who live in river valleys, like the Egyptians or the Sumerians, generally can find a lot of clay. Slab: a method of rolling out flat pieces of clay with a rolling pin and then joining them together by scoring and adding slip or slurry Coil: forms are built by rolling out coils or ropes of clay and then joining them together Slip or slurry: liquid clay used to "glue"
or join two pieces together. Mix clay in a small
container with a spoon and water until it is the
consistency of heavy cream. Stages of dryness:
wet or moist
bone-dry clay is most fragile -
it is brittle and may break easily...
there is no way of sticking it back together If you put your clay pot or sculpture in a fire, or a kiln and bake it while very hot,(1200 deg. f.) the clay harderns, and will stay that way, even if you put it in water for a long time. This is called firing. Joining clay:
clay must be scored...this means scratching a rough surface on the sides that will be joined...
then add slip and press the two pieces together. Examples of ceramics from Ancient Civilizations
Neolithic Water jar from Ancient China Ancient Jomon vessel from Japan (10,000 - 8,000 BCE) Jomon means "cord-marked" in Japanese. The markings made on the vessel are from ropes pressed into the clay. The Greeks were known for two styles of ceramics - Red figure & black figure
Their ceramics often depicted scenes from mythology The Terracotta Army or the "Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses",
is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BC and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife, and to make sure that he had people to rule over. The Terracotta Army or the "Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses", is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BC and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife, and to make sure that he had people to rule over. The Venus of Willendorf - the oldest example of a statue - a "fertility" charm carved in limestone about 22,000 BCE WEDGING
Wedging is the process of mixing the clay by hand by rotating and pressing a clay ball on a table. The purpose is to thoroughly homogenize the clay and to remove all air bubbles. This is particularly important, as the presence of air bubbles in the clay will result in explosions in the kiln as the air pockets expand and burst. Your work is ruined, as is any piece near yours in the kiln. You will know if there is air in your clay if you see holes, like in Swiss cheese, when you slice through the clay with a wire. So...clay has been around for a long, long time...
it's fun...it's functional...it's forgiving...
And now we're ready to play...with clay!