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Students as designers of AR

Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre project

Matt Bower

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Students as designers of AR

Augmented Reality has the potential to supplant the Internet
Using AR to develop lower order thinking capabilities is justifiable, but limited
Educators need to ensure that they are using AR to develop higher order thinking skills, and students as designers with AR is a way to achieve this

Closing Remarks

Student Work

Students created videos, animations, audio tracks, links, surveys, commentaries and interactive menus
Used iMovie, Photoshop, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Premier Elements, Adobe Fireworks, Keynote, Survey Monkey and GarageBand
Teachers and Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre staff provided technical guidance if necessary (emphasis on students rapidly becoming autonomous designers)
Image markers used rather than object triggers (due to difficulties with changing light and vegetation)


Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre project
Sixteen High School students (Year 8 to Year 10) in Term 4 of 2012
Selected sculpture from Macquarie University Sculpture Park
Create AR experience to interpret and enhance the sculpture for visitors to the park

Example: Students as designers with AR

drawing on student prior knowledge and hence promoting engagement
scaffolded learning through cross referencing between design knowledge and processes
intellectual quality through discussing, problem solving, theorising, drawing conclusions, developing deep understanding
promotes agency of students where they are enacting, developing, determining rather than passively receiving
(van Haren, 2010)

Benefits of ‘Learning by Design’ approach

The majority of applications and cases used Augmented Reality to provide students with pre-packaged learning experiences
Can lead to the situation where Augmented Reality only develops lower order thinking skills by supporting understanding and application, without encouraging higher order integrative thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and creation

Pre-packed -> Lower Order Thinking

Academics agree that there is a need to that there is an ongoing need to investigate the pedagogical practices that are most suited to a curriculum influenced by Augmented Reality (Dunlavy, et al., 2009; Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003)
Optimal solutions may not reside in one educational paradigm but rather a blending of pedagogical approaches (Dunleavy, et al., 2009; Klopfer & Squire, 2008; Rasimah, et al., 2011; Tarng & Ou, 2012)

More research required

Compared to the potential of Augmented Reality, there has been relatively little integration of Augmented Reality into the classroom, meaning that there are few use cases to inform teacher practice
(Johnson, et al., 2012)

Low uptake

In search of an alternative sustainable place for humans to live, students could use…

Potential for Integrated uses of AR

Apedoe, X. S., Reynolds, B., Ellefson, M. R., & Schunn, C. D. (2008). Bringing engineering design into high school science classrooms: The heating/cooling unit. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(5), 454-465.
Billinghurst, M., & Duenser, A. (2012). Augmented Reality in the classroom. Computer, 45(7), 56-63.
Dede, C. (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science, 323(5910), 66-69.
Doppelt, Y., Mehalik, M. M., Schunn, C. D., Silk, E., & Krysinski, D. (2008). Engagement and achievements: A case study of design-based learning in a science context. Journal of Technology Education, 19(2), 22-39.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory Augmented Reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.
Jerry, T., & Aaron, C. (2010). The impact of augmented reality software with inquiry-based learning on students' learning of kinematics graph. In Education Technology and Computer (ICETC), 2010 2nd International Conference on, (pp. V2-1-V2-5): IEEE.
Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas: T. N. M. Consortium.
Johnson, L., Smith, R., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2010). The 2010 Horizon Report: Australia – New Zealand Edition. Austin, Texas: T. N. M. Consortium.
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics, 27(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, R., Luckin, S., & Seljeflot, A. W. (2006). Making it real: exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174.
Klopfer, E., & Squire, K. (2008). Environmental Detectives - The development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(2), 203-228.
Lee, K. (2012). Augmented Reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2), 13-21.
Neville, M. (2010). Meaning making using new media: Learning by design case studies. E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(3), 237-247.
Rasimah, C., Ahmad, A., & Zaman, H. (2011). Evaluation of user acceptance of mixed reality technology. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(8), 1369-1387.
Tarng, W., & Ou, K.-L. (2012). A Study of Campus Butterfly Ecology Learning System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning. In Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (WMUTE), 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, (pp. 62-66): IEEE.
van Haren, R. (2010). Engaging learner diversity through learning by design. E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(3), 258-271.
Zahn, C., Pea, R., Hesse, F. W., & Rosen, J. (2010). Comparing simple and advanced video tools as supports for complex collaborative design processes. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19(3), 403-440.


The ‘Students As Designers’ case reported in this project was funded by the Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre, which is a partnership between NSW Department of Education and Communities and Macquarie University
For further details about the project please see the project website at: http://macictaugreality2012.wordpress.com/


The future is in our hands

Placed in role of authentic designers
Cultivated a sophisticated appreciation for content being studied
Motivated to “go in depth” by task challenge and external audience
Encouraged to “think differently”, “have their own perspective”, “imagine new ideas”
Developed digital literacies
Appreciated the potential of Augmented Reality
Promoted pride in work and enjoyment of learning
Higher quality output than previous approaches for the same topic

Benefits of students as designers of AR

Day 1: introductory workshop
AR Explanation and showcase
Hands on practice tasks
Digital art activities
Sharing of attitudes towards technology
Day 2 & 3: Commence design process
Tour of park
Selecting sculpture
Group formation
On-campus guided work
Day 4 & 5: Development and production (at school)

Pedagogical Process

existence of deep, field-specific literacy knowledge
time for professional learning and a willingness to engage with research and new knowledge
desire and facility to select from, and document explicitly, a broad range of knowledge processes
awareness of the degree to which pedagogical designs can shift from experiential to conceptual and analytical processes
the capacity to enable a production-house classroom environment
the orientation to a collaborative-production approach to designing learning and engaging learners
(Neville, 2010)

Teacher requirements for successful ‘Learning by Design’

‘Design Based Learning’ science classes resulted in improved student performance, and increase in students' desire to learn and interest in Science (Doppelt et al, 2008)
Designing with video enabled students to (a) improve their understanding of the topic and acquisition of subject specific cognitive skills, (b) improve the quality of student design products (Zahn et al, 2008)
A design based learning investigation of heating and cooling systems lead to significantly better acquisition of science concepts and a significantly higher desire to become an engineer (Apedoe et al, 2008)

Evidence of superior learning outcomes

Students as designers with Augmented Reality in order to develop higher order thinking skills

Learning by Design

Time and technical expertise associated with development of materials (Lucinda Kerawalla, Luckin, & Seljeflot, 2006)
Lack of confidence to deal with technical issues (Billinghurst & Duenser, 2012)
High levels of support may be required (Dede, 2009)
Problematic view that IT staff rather than professionals need to be equipped with design and development skills (Billinghurst & Duenser, 2012)
Lack of a conceptual framework regarding the implementation of technology (Rasimah, et al., 2011)

Barriers to using AR in the classroom

ISS Live – to find the International Space Station and deduce how and where to dock

Potential for integrated uses of AR

Transparent Earth – to peer through the globe and pick a launch site (http://www.hogere.com/transparentearth)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

Repeatedly shown to increase student motivation:
(Billinghurst & Duenser, 2012; Johnson, et al., 2010; Tarng & Ou, 2012)
Contributed to student learning outcomes in some cases (Jerry & Aaron, 2010; Lee, 2012; Rasimah, et al., 2011; Tarng & Ou, 2012)
Small but positive effect on some students’ learning attitudes (Jerry & Aaron, 2010)
Contribution to student perception of the relevance of their learning to their everyday lives (Jerry & Aaron, 2010)

Impact of AR in Education

Performed substantial research into artwork’s history, context and materials
Developed an interface prototype for their design
Multimedia texts (written, image, video) launched via buttons
Provided deep interpretations (e.g. how shadows added unexpected meaning)

James and Chris’s Design for ‘Bridge’ by John Petrie

Aurasma (http://aurasma.com)
Layar (http://layar.com)
Junaio (http://junaio.com)

AR Systems enabling teachers to become designers

Planets3D book – to ventures to further planets

Potential for integrated uses of AR

Spacecraft 3D – to simulate Martian data collection

Potential for integrated uses of AR

SkyView – Augmented Reality star viewing application to plot a path to the Moon and Mars

Potential for integrated uses of AR

Provided a personalised and contextualised AR video interpretation
Incorporated a thematic comparison with another text (Lord of the Rings)
Created an original AR effect enabling users to insert their own interpretation: “Slide a new image of unity under your camera”

Tom’s design for ‘Achievement through Unity’

Strong emotional response to piece
AR experience aimed to portray perceived mystery, intrigue and spirituality
Recorded audio track and blue-screen video projecting sculpture qualities
Incorporated textual explanations aligning their interpretation with those of the artist

Rachel, Susie and Sammi’s Design for ‘Algoid’ by Errol Davis

MoonGlobe and MarsGlobe – to explore the moon and mars for best places to inhabit
(see http://www.midnightmartian.com)

Potential for integrated uses of AR


Cases, Places, and Potentials

Augmented Reality in Education
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