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Sentences and Paragraphs

Writing Complete Sentences Identifying and changing fragments run-ons
by

Ben VandenBerg

on 12 September 2012

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Transcript of Sentences and Paragraphs

Writing Effective Sentences has a subject
has a verb
expresses a complete thought 2 common errors sentence fragments - are actually two complete sentences punctuated as one. run-ons -often these are capitalized and punctuated correctly. Was the first African American man to win the
Wimbledon Tennis championship. -missing subject While he was a student at the University of California. -not a complete thought WARNING Ashe the Wimbledon singles title in 1975. -missing verb Exercise 1 Identifying Sentence Fragments 1. A flying squirrel a squirrel that can
gracefully glide through the air.
2. Some Asian flying squirrels three feet
long
3. Skillfully leaps from one tree to another.
4. The squirrel glides downward, then
straight, and finally upward.
5. Some flying squirrels more than fifty feet.
6. If they use a higher starting point.
7. Flying squirrels live in the forests of Asia,
Europe, and North America.
8. To eat berries, birds' eggs, insects,
and nuts.
9. Nesting in the hollows of trees.
10. Notice how this squirrel stretches out
its legs to help it glide. Exercise 2 Finding and Revising Fragments

1. As the whole family loaded the car.
2. We traveled for hours.
3. When we arrived at the campground.
4. My sister and I down to the river.
5. Took our fishing gear with us.
6. We cast our lines the way our aunt had taught us.
7. Because we didn't have the best bait.
8. We headed back to the campsite at sunset.
9. Dad cooking bean soup over the fire.
10. While Mom and my sister pitched the tent. Researchers have created a "virtual frog" it will allow
students to see the inside of a frog on the computer. FIX IT HOW TO 1. You can make two or more sentences. 2. You can use a comma and a coordinating conjunction. For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So Asteroids are tiny planets they are sometimes called
planetoids. Asteroids are tiny planets. They are sometimes called
planetoids. RUNON CORRECT RUNON CORRECT Some asteroids shine with a steady light, others keep changing in brightness. Some asteroids shine with a bright light, but others keep
changing in brightness Exercise 3 Identifying and Revising Run-on Sentences

1. Saturn is a huge planet it is more than nine times larger than Earth.
2. Saturn is covered by clouds, it is circled by bands of color.
3. Some of the clouds are yellow, others are off-white.
4. Saturn has about twenty moons Titan is the largest.
5. Many of Saturn's moons have large craters the crater on Mimas covers one third of its diameter.
6. Saturn's most striking feature is a group of rings that circles the planet.
7. The rings of Saturn are less than two miles thick, they spread out from the planet for a great distance.
8. The rings are made up of billions of tiny particles.
9. Some of the rings are dark, but others are brighter.
10. You can use a telescope to view Saturn, you can visit a planetarium. Combining Sentences by Inserting Words One way to combine short, choppy sentences is to take a key word from one sentence and insert it into another sentence. Example Easter lily plants have leaves. The leaves have points. Easter lily plants have pointed leaves.
The leaves of Easter lily plants have points. shabampf! Exercise 4 Combining Sentences by Inserting Words

1. This picture shows peanuts underground.
They grow underground.
2. Peanuts are a crop of many warm regions.
They are a major crop.
3. Peanuts are a food for snacking. Peanuts are good for your health.
4. The oil from peanuts is used in many dressings. The dressings are for salad.
5. Grades of peanut oil are used to make soap and shampoo. The low grades are used for these products.
6. Many countries grow peanuts solely for their oil. This oil is versatile.
7. The peanut-producing countries include China, India, and the United States. These countries lead the world in peanut production.
8. Some soils will stain the peanut shells. Dark soils are responsible for the stains.
9. After peanuts are harvested, the plants are used for feed. The feed is for livestock.
10. Peanuts are a good source of vitamins. Peanuts contain B vitamins. Combining Sentences by Inserting Phrases a phrase is a group of words that act as a single part of speech and does not have both a subject and a verb FYI--- Arachne is a a famous figure. She is a figure in Greek mythology.

Arachne is a famous figure in Greek
mythology. phrases can be added almost anywhere in a sentence:
at the beginning
in the middle
at the end Early Inuit followed a special way of life. They did this so they could survive in a harsh environment
To survive in a harsh environment, early Inuit followed a special way of life. Arachne challenged Athena to a weaving contest. Athena was the goddess of wisdom.
Arachne challenged Athena, the goddess of wisdom, to a weaving contest. The name Inuit refers to several groups of people. These people live in an near the Arctic.
The name Inuit refers to several groups of people living in and near the Arctic. Exercise 5

1. The Inuit built winter shelters in a few hours.
They stacked blocks of snow.
2. They used harpoons. This is how the hunted seals.
3. The Inuit also hunted and ate caribou. Caribou are a type of deer.
4. Whalers and fur traders came to the region and affected the Inuit way of life. They arrived in the 1800's.
5. The Inuit often moved several times a year. They moved so that they could find food.
6. During the summer, traditional Inuit lived in tents. The tents were made from animal skin.
7. In the 1800's many Inuit began to trap animals. They trapped animals for European fur traders.
8. Some Inuit worked on the whaling ships. They needed to find other ways to provide for their families.
9. The Inuit have survived for thousands of years. They have survived in the harsh Arctic climate.
10. Most Inuit today follow a modern way of life. They are like the Canadian Inuit in the photo on the opposite page. Compound Subjects,
Compound Verbs,
and Compound Sentences. -it just means, "more than one" Compound
Subjects -if two sentences share the same verb combine them. Dolphins look a little like fish.
Porpoises look a little like fish. Dolphins and porpoises look a little like fish. Compound
Verbs -if two sentences have the same subject but different verbs then combine them. Dolphins live in water like fish. They breather like other mammals

Dolphins live in water like fish but breathe like other mammals Exercise 6

1. Dolphins are warm-blooded. Porpoises are warm-blooded.
2. Common dolphins live in warm waters. Common dolphins swim in large schools.
3. Porpoises are similar to dolphins. Porpoises generally live in cooler water.
4. Dolphins have beak-like snouts. Dolphins use sonar to locate objects under water.
5. Dolphins hunt fish. Dolphins eat fish.
6. Dolphins swim by moving their tails up and down. Porpoises swim by moving their tails up and down.
7. Porpoises can swim fast. Dolphins can swim fast.
8. A porpoise could outswim most sharks. A tuna could outswim most sharks.
9. Bottle-nosed dolphins can measure up to fifteen feet in length. Bottle-nosed dolphins can weigh over four hundred pounds.
10. Sharks sometimes attack porpoises. Sharks sometimes kill porpoises. Compound Sentences -combine two sentences if they are very closely related and equally important. My brother entered the Annual Chili Cook-off. His Chili won a prize.

My brother entered the Annual Chili Cook-off, and his chili won a prize. ---be sure to use a comma and a conjunction though Exercise 7

1. Some Pueblos built villages in the valleys. Others settled in desert and mountain areas.
2. Desert surrounded many of the valleys. The people grew crops with the help of irrigation systems.
3. Women gathered berries and other foods. Men hunted game.
4. Their adobe homes had several stories. The people used ladders to reach the upper levels.
5. Today, each Pueblo village has its own government. The Pueblo people still share many customs. "who" or "what" the sentence is about. always a noun or pronoun The action of the subject also known as the "predicate" Combining Sentences Using Subordinate Clauses -a clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb.
-a INDEPENDENT CLAUSE can stand alone (it makes sense by itself)





-a DEPENDENT Clause can NOT stand alone (it doesn't make sense by itself) Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel. when she was nineteen years old -do this if two sentences are related.
-the resulting sentences is called a COMPLEX SENTENCE EXAMPLE of combining sentences by using Subordinate Clauses Theresa traveled to Rome. She saw the Sistine Chapel.

Theresa traveled to Rome, where she saw the Sistine Chapel. HINT -sometimes you can do this by adding a clause that begins with:
"Who"
"Which"
"That"
or words of time like:
"after"
"before"
"where"
"wherever"
"when"
"whenever"
"while" EXAMPLE of combining sentences by using Subordinate Clauses The Everglades is an area of swamps. It covers the southern part of Florida.

The Everglades is an area of swamps that cover cover the southern part of Florida. EXAMPLE of combining sentences by using Subordinate Clauses No humans lived in the Everglades until 1842. In 1842, Seminoles fled to the area.

No humans lived in the Everglades 1842, when Seminoles fled to the area. Exercise 8

1. The pearl is a gem. It is made by certain kinds of oysters and clams.
2. Beautiful pearls are found in tropical seas. The best pearl oysters live there.
3. A valuable pearl has a shine. The shine comes from below its surface.
4. A pearl becomes round. It is formed in the soft part of the oyster.
5. Pearls should be wiped clean with a soft cloth. They are worn as jewelry. Write "F" if the sentences is a fragment,
and write"S" if it is a sentence. If the problem is a fragment, correct it.
If the problem is a sentecce, write "S." If the problem is a run-on, then fix it.
If the problem is a sentence, then write "S." Combine these two choppy sentences by inserting a word. You may have to change the tense or add a suffix. Combine these two sentences by inserting a phrase. You may have to change the tense of some words. Combine these two choppy sentences
by using a compound subject. Combine these two sentences into one. Combine these two sentences by inserting a subordinate clause. This makes a "complex sentence."
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