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Transcript of Antimatter
- 1931 Paul Dirac combines quantum theory and special relativity, predicts existence of antimatter. A year later, Carl Anderson detects the first antielectron (positron) at CalTech. He noticed it had the same mass as an electron but a positive charge.
- 1955 First antiproton was detected. This discovery came thanks to Ernest Lawrence's creation of the Bevatron which collides protons . `A year later the antineutron is dicovered.
- 1995 First antiatoms created at CERN. CERN managed to decelerate and combine antiprotons, antineutrons and antielectrons to create 9 antihydrogen antiatoms.
2002 Creation of thousands of antihydrogen atoms at CERN.
2010 38 atoms of antihydrogen trapped at CERN.
Medical - Some use in treating cancer, impractical
- An antiproton is made up of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark
- A antineutron is amde of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.
- Positron is its own particle and is not composed of any quarks.
Warfafe - You could use antimatter as a weapon since just 1 kg of antimatter reacting with 1 kg of normal matter releases as much energy as the largest nuclear explosion
Fuel - The ratio of energy to mass of antimatter compared to that of modern chemical energy is 10^10 times greater and about 10^3 for nuclear energy. However, you can't utilize the energy released by antimatter reactions as well as chemical reactions so it will be some time before we can utilize antimatter as fuel.
- Antimatter costs about 62.5 billion dollars to the gram
- All the antimatter created to date, one billionth
of a gram has cost around 322,000,000 dollars to make.
In a thunderstorm, electrons are accelerated to near light speed and if they hit an atom, they release gamma rays. If those gamma rays hit another atom, there is a chance that the gamma ray is converted into both an electron and a positron.