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Transcript of Flesh-Eating Bacteria
Bacteria What is it? Diagnosis and Treatments for necrotizing fasciitis Diagnosis is dependent upon how quickly the symptoms escalate, and how quickly the infection is spreading.
Tests such as gram staining of exudates (fluid form the infection site), biopsied tissue, are used to determine the type of bacteria that caused infection, and CAT/MRI/CT/X-ray tests are used to search for any injury to internal organs.
Treatments include EARLY DETECTION, a strong cocktail dose of antibiotics (intravenous, and include Penicillin, Clindamycin and Vancomycin), and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
However, if the condition has escalated considerably, and the bacterial toxins have caused a reduction in blood flow, rapid removal of debridement (dead tissue) and amputation is necessary for survival. This infection is commonly caused by bacteria known as
It may also arise from other types of bacteria such as Relevance to House HYPOTHESIS materials Diagnosis and Treatments Interesting Facts -4 identical glass jars
-pellets of fertilizer THANK YOU FOR WATCHING Flesh-eating bacteria, also known as necrotizing fasciitis, is an infection that results in the degradation of soft tissues, such as skin, fat, & muscle tissue Causes
GAS Bacterium Klebsiella Clostridium group A Streptococcus E. Coli Staphylococcus aureus Aeromonas hydrophila Causes Who usually contracts it? •Individuals who have a compromised or weakened immune system, as found in those who have diabetes, cancer, kidney disease, or other health problems have a higher chance of contracting necrotizing fasciitis. •Individuals who conduct proper wound care, do not have a compromised immune system, and are relatively healthy have a lower chance of contracting necrotizing fasciitis. Contracting this infection usually occurs when the epidermis has an opening due to a cut, pinprick, staple puncture, or any other type of wound opening. The bacteria can also enter skin that has weakened from a bruise, blister, or abrasion. Symptoms
Severe pain disproportionate to the injured area
Fever symptoms such as nausea dizziness, vomiting, weakness, and chills. IN: 24 HOURS Symptoms IN: 3-4 DAYS "The limb may begin to have large, dark marks, that will become blisters filled with blackish fluid" (NNFF).
A purplish/reddish rash will ensue within the infected area (erythema).
Other skin changes include: "skin ulceration, bullae (thin-walled fluid-filled blisters) formation, necrotic scars (black scabs), gas formation in the tissues, and fluid draining from the site can occur rapidly as the infection progresses" (Web MD). Symptoms Severe drop in blood pressure
Toxic shock syndrome
Organ failure---> Death IN: 4-5 DAYS TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME Commonly caused by toxins released by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria or by Streptococcus bacteria.
Appears after injuries to the skin, surgical wounds, or misuse of highly-absorbent tampons/contraceptive sponges.
Symptoms include an acute drop in blood pressure, high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, unexplained rash, fatigue, and excessive thirst. "About 1 out of 4 people who get this infection die from it" (Web MD); 75% of infected individuals die from it (Davis).
"Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown by researchers to further reduce morbidity and mortality by about 10%-20% in some patients when used in conjunction with antibiotics and surgery" (Davis).
"Each year in the US, there are about 650-800 cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A strep; this is likely an underestimation as some cases are probably not reported" (CDC).
"The spread of the infection can be so fast (investigators suggest some organisms can progress to involve about 3 centimeters of tissue per hour) that the infection becomes difficult to stop even with both antimicrobial drugs and surgery" (Davis). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (oxygen given under pressure with the patient in a specialized chamber) is sometimes used in treatment as the oxygen can inhibit or stop anaerobic bacterial growth and promote tissue recovery" (Davis). Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy In Patient One, the farmer, it was assumed that the cause of wound was a snake bite. However, upon further examination, House reveals a bit more details and the medical students realize that the bite is from that of the farmer's dog. The farmer was protecting the dog from being destroyed. When the dog bit the farmer, the dog's bite transferred numerous bacteria into the farmer's leg (bacteria that the dog is naturally immune to). Caught to late, the infection spread and thrived, leading to all symptoms associated with necrotizing fasciitis, and therefore cost the farmer his leg (to halt further progression of the infection). Works Cited
"CDC Features - Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Rare Disease, Especially for the Healthy."Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 June 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/features/necrotizingfasciitis/>.
Davis, Charles Patrick. "Necrotizing Fasciitis." Medicine Net. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013. <http://www.medicinenet.com/necrotizing_ fasciitis/page4.htm>
"NNFF Quick Fact Sheet." Welcome to the National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 June 2013. <http://www.nnff.org/nnff_factsheet.htm>.
"Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-Eating Bacteria)-Topic Overview." WebMD - Better information. Better health.. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 June 2013. <http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/necrotizing-fasciitis-flesh-eating-bacteria-topic-overview>.
"Necrotizing Fasciitis – Causes, Symptoms, Pictures, Statistics and Treatment." Health Articles, News and Tips - PrimeHealthChannel.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013. <http://www.primehealthchannel.com/necrotizing-fasciitis-causes-symptoms-pictures-statistics-and-treatment.html>.
"Toxic Shock Syndrome ." KidsHealth - the Web's most visited site about children's health. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013. <http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/skin/toxic_shock.html>.
"Toxic shock syndrome - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 June 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/toxic-shock-syndrome/DS00221>.