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S4: Farming

Geography: Farm Systems and Changes
by

Kathryn MacDonald

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of S4: Farming

Learning Intention: To understand that farms operate as systems of inputs, processes and outputs.
Develop our understanding of the physical and human factors which affect farmers decision making. S4:FARMING WHAT IS FARMING?? Deep, fertile soils are found on flood plains, this is known as alluvium. Do you think crops will grown in these conditions? Farming is the way that people produce food by growing crops and raising animals INPUTS, PROCESSES AND OUTPUTS.. What factors influence farmers? The shape of the land ultimately determines what it is used for.
Steep slopes are likely to have outcrops, this combined with gradient will make access difficult for machinery.

Steeper slopes are often found at higher altitudes thus temperatures are lower. Thus crops are less likely to be grown here.

More gentle slopes are likely to be found at lower altitudes, so are warmer. Combined with better accessibility, this means crops are more likely to be grown here.

Aspect is also important. North-facing slopes are colder and shadier, whereas south-facing slopes are warmer and sunnier. This means crops are more likely to be grown here. Forestry is a common land use on north-facing slopes as well as animal rearing, e.g. sheep. PHYSICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FARMING: Relief Like Factories, the farm system is made up of Human and Physical Inputs, processes and Outputs. INPUTS: The things that it needs to make it work (eg.temperature, labour..)
PROCESSES: The things that happen on the farm (eg. Harvesting..)
OUTPUTS = What the farm produces (eg. potatoes) Farmers are decision makers and there are many factors, PHYSICAL and HUMAN, which influence their daily decision making processes.

These will control whether his farm grows crops or rears animals.
They will also control what goes on in each area of the farm Can you think of any Physical or human factors that could influence the decisions made by a farmer? Out of all the People in employment in Britain, what percentage of people do you think actually work on farms?? What percentage of land in Britain is used for farming?? Soils on slopes are often thin and rocky (also prone to downwards movement!). How does this effect the growing of crops? Waterlogged soils are often found at the base of slopes. Do you think the soil found here is fertile or infertile? PHYSICAL FACTORS: SOIL How are relief and soil linked?? PHYSICAL FACTORS: precipitation The amount and distribution of rainfall is important in farming. Why do you think this is? Farmers need an adequate amount of rainfall (around 1000mm) ... not too much and not too little.

Equally the TOTAL amount of rainfall must be evenly distributed through out the year (around 80mm/month). This is particularly important during the growing season when crops need it most. PHYSICAL FACTORS: Temperature Suitable temperatures are important throughout the farming year.

Plants need a temperature of 6 degrees to germinate- SO until temperatures warm up in Spring then plants will not grow.

If the temperature suddenly drops in Spring or Autumn then crops can be destroyed by frost.

What happens if summer temperatures are too hot? http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7617321.stm TASK: Look at fig.A on page 192. Complete Q.1,2 and 3 on the farming system worksheet. EXTENSION TASK: Page 193. Q2 & 3.
TASK: Now complete the physical factors section of the factors influencing farming worksheet. Write your answers in your jotters. Human Factors: market How and where a farmer sells their produce is important.

Why do farmers who produce soft fruits, milk and flowers need to be located close to good transport links?

Other products need to be farmed close to processing plants. Peas are grown in East Anglia so that they are within an hour of the Birds Eye ‘Fast Freezing’ Factory in Lowestoft, A farmers decision on whether to use artificial chemicals on his farm will influence the type of farming.






Those who choose to use natural fertilisers and who reject chemical pesticides can sell their produce as organic.

The organic sector is growing rapidly in the UK with the increasing popularity of Farmers Markets. More and more organic produce is also being sold in the nation’s supermarkets. Can you think of anyone who is a high profile ambassador of organic farming in Britain? HUMAN FACTORS: Pesticides, fertilisers etc. Organic Farming: HRH Prince Charles What methods does Prince Charles use to run his farm organically? He is known to be a ambassador on organic food and environmental issues. Prince Charles even has his own range of organic foods which is sold in Waitrose. He has frequently got in trouble for speaking out against GM crops and the use of pesticides. Factors Influencing Farming: TASKS Now complete the human factors on your worksheet using the information from the previous slides. Arable
Hill sheep
Mixed
Pastoral / livestock (dairy, pigs, poultry)
Market gardening TASK: Use diagrams A to E on p194 to make notes on the five types of farming found in the UK. FARM SYSTEMS There are 5 main farming systems in the UK: Whether or not machinery can access areas of land will influence farming type.

Why will steeper slopes prevent the use of large farming machinery such as combine harvesters??





Farm machinery is often very expensive. This may limit its use in more marginal farming areas – those that struggle to make a profit HUMAN FACTORS: Mechanisation LOCATION OF FARMING IN THE UK Study pg.195 of your textbook
Collect a blank Map of the UK.

Answer Questions 1 & 2(a)-(c) For each of the following types of farm state where they are located and why. Arable
Cattle
Mixed
Hill sheep http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/1141.html WHY is Eastern Scotland MORE important for arable farming?? Using ALL of the maps above, account for the changing farm types in the UK. 5 HUMAN FACTORS: Government Policy Government Policy (UK and EU) often dictates what a farmer will choose to grow.

Subsidies – farmers are paid money to grow a particular crop or rear a particular animal.
Quotas – farmers are set a limit on how much they can produce of a particular product. Learning Intentions:
To deepen our knowledge and understanding of the diffing types of farming in the U.K.
The locations in which we are likely to find arable, pastoral and hill sheep farming and the reasons for this. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/1442.html - Complete the 2007 past paper question, write about human OR physical factors. How many points would we make for 6 marks? ARABLE FARMING Involves the production of crops such as:

- Cereals (eg. wheat and barley)

- root vegetables (Carrots, parsnips etc.)

- Salads (peas, lettuce etc.) Cereal and root Crops can also be grown as FORAGE/FODDER to be fed to animals. Arable Farming Beef grazing on kale Beets Sugar Oats being harvested- turned into straw Turnips Potatoes Arable Farming Subsidised crops: The impact of the EU NOW- Conduct your own research into arable farming. Complete the exercises. ARABLE FARMING: Summary The soil must be deep, fertile and not waterlogged – floodplain alluvium (river flood deposits) is ideal.
The temperature must be warm (above 6ºC) throughout the growing season – from sowing to harvesting.
Some rainfall but not too much – crops do not like waterlogged soils. Root crops like potatoes can grow well in wetter conditions whereas cereal crops like wheat can be ruined by heavy rain.
Sunshine is needed to ripen the crops, so valley floors and south-facing slopes are ideal
The land must be flat or gently sloping so that the farmer can use machinery
Farms must not be too far from their market, especially if they are producing perishable crops. Dairy farming in the UK Put the title 'Dairy farming in the UK'
Read Pages 196-197
Answer Q1, Q3 AND Q4 on page. 197 Pastoral Farming * Make notes from the following information * Only one third of the farmland in Britain is used for growing crops. The rest is used for grazing animals (pastoral farming).
Beef farming is the rearing of cattle for meat, e.g. Aberdeen Angus. Beef cattle can survive in cold weather and on quite steep slopes. So they are found on the edges of upland areas, especially in the North East of Scotland.
Dairy farming is the rearing of dairy cows for milk. It must be warm enough, rainy enough and fertile enough for the grass to grow properly. Dairy cattle need lots of good quality grass to help them produce lots of good quality milk. It also has to be flat enough for the cows to graze and near enough to market for the milk to be delivered fresh each day.
Pigs, poultry, sheep (even ostriches and llamas) are also grazed in the UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/4326.html Hill sheep farming This is found in upland areas where soil is less fertile and slopes are often too steep to allow access for large machinery.
Sheep are most commonly farmed as they are sure-footed and can survive on the poorer quality grass. Task: Complete the Hillside Farm Worksheet Hill Sheep farming Why is Hill sheep farming found mainly in the North and West? You must mention:
Amount of rainfall
Temperature
Height and releif of land Arable farming is commonly high tech and can use chemicals Intensive: Farming a small area of land very intensively, using fertilisers, pesticides, ect.
Extensive: Farming a huge area of land.
Commercial: Growing crops to sell for profit.
Subsistence: Growing crops primarily to eat. Farming Techniques Task: Pg.193 Q4 The impact of the EUCrops used in making oils and margarines Linseed and Oil seed fields mixed together Oil seed rape flowers Seeds dyed with pesticide Pesticide store Mixed Farming System Crops are grown and animals are reared in the same area.
The farm is most often to be found in areas of changing relief. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/4327.html For example:
Valley farms are often mixed.
Arable crops are grown on the gently-sloping, fertile soils of the valley floor.
Dairy cattle are often grazed on the lower slopes, while sheep are grazed on the steeper, rockier upper slopes.
Where slopes become too steep, forestry is often an option for farmers. Mixed Farming System Is the land suitable for mixed farming? Is there land that is too steep for machinery, making it difficult to plant crops?
Is there land that will not get much sunshine?
Is there land that might flood and therefore destroy any crops planted?
Is there land that has a climate that is suitable for growing crops? Mixed Farming System Task: Write a description of the type of situation mixed farming is found. Market Gardening System Read Page 189-199. Answer Q1(a),2, 3, 4 & 5 Farming Systems: Summary Arable
Pastoral
Dairy
Cattle
Hill sheep
Mixed
Market gardening
Extensive
Intensive Growing of crops Rearing animals Cattle for Milk Cattle for beef Sheep farming for lamb/wool Usually both arable & pastoral Fruit, Veg & Plants grown, often near Urban areas Large areas of land with limited inputs/outputs eg.hill sheep Smaller areas, often with costly inputs eg. Market Gardening. REVISION Farming Map Work You will usually be asked to give map evidence to say why a particular type of farming is found in a particular location.
You should think about: Gradient of the land – steep slopes or gentle slopes?
Possible soil type – this is linked to gradient.
Steep slopes = thin, stony soils;
gentle slopes = thicker, more fertile soil.
Aspect – what direction is the slope facing?
Transport links – roads nearby?
Market – close to processing plant, large town?
How high is the farm? – remember higher farms are colder.
What is the climate like? – upland farms are often wetter (relief rainfall), south facing slopes are sunnier, etc. Spider diagrams/notes to revise farming types and locations.
2007 Credit, Q6
2004, Q5 What can we do to revise for farming?? Farming Map Work Past Paper Question – Falkirk (2005 Credit)Land Use on Mungal Farm (879815) and Seafield Farm (867782)
Past Paper Question – Lanark (1994 credit)Land Use on Woodlands (907373) Farm and Charleston Farm (923417). Overcoming problems and changes to farms Learning Outcomes:
What can farmers do to overcome problems ontheir farm?
What changes have taken place in farming in recent years.
What consequences does thiss have for the economy and the environment? Success Criteria
I can describe and explain 3 ways which farmers overcome problems.
I can name and identify 10 changes that have taken place in farming.
I am fully aware of the consequences of these changes. TASK: Read Pages 202-203 of your textbook Overcoming problems and changes to farms Learning Outcomes:
What can farmers do to overcome problems on their farms?
What changes have taken place in farming in recent years?
What consequences do they have for the economy and the environment? Success Criteria:
I can describe and explain three ways which farmers overcome problems.
I can name and identify over 10 changes that have taken place in farming.
I am fully aware of the consequences of these changes.
I can work effectively as a pair
I have completed all tasks to the best of my ability. Overcoming farming problems Put the following ways of overcoming farming problems into their correct place on your diagram The farmer can fertilise poor, infertile ground Very dry land can be irrigated (watered) Chemicals can be used to control pests and diseases Wet ground can be drained Shelter belts can be planted to protect crops from strong winds Other farming changes SPOT THE DIFFERENCE... 1940 2010 Spot the difference What changes have taken place? The number of hedges has decreased and field size has increased. Farming changes- Speed dating Using your ‘Farming Changes’ handout you will create a spider diagram.
You will be allocated one change.
You will then have 2 minutes with each member of the class.
During this time you must learn about their change whilst teaching them about your change
The amount of machinery has increased...WHY?? Farmers can produce more in a shorter period of time if they use machines.

Machinery has become more affordable as farm production has increased. Profits are spent on new machinery.

Farmers who cannot afford their own machinery often share with other farms, e.g. combine harvesters The number of farm workers has decreased.. WHY?? Mechanisation means fewer workers are required so farm labourers have lost their jobs.


This often leads to rural depopulation There are now more and larger farm buildings... WHY?? There are more machines on the average farm, requiring more storage sheds.
Machinery is larger so requires larger buildings in which to store it.


Mechanical parts in machinery are prone to decay if left exposed to the weather, so sheds are needed to house most modern machines.
Farm size has increased... WHY?? Many small farms have joined together to make larger farms. This is known as amalgamation.
These larger farms are more efficient and can make more money. This means they are more likely to be able to afford the costly equipment needed to run them.
Large scale farming is known as agribusiness. Marshy Ground has been drained... WHY?? Advances in technology have meant it is now possible to drain areas of land and make them fertile through the use of fertilisers and other artificial chemicals.
This land, that was previously infertile and left out of production, can now be used to help farmers increase their profits. Increased use of chemicals... WHY?? Many seeds that farmers use today rely on fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides for their growth. Farmers have come to rely on these chemicals to improve the quality and quantity of their produce.
Without weedkillers, for example, crops would become smothered by wild flowers and grasses. This reduces the amount of crop produced and makes the harvesting process more difficult. There is more woodland... WHY?? More efficient farming has led to crop surpluses, e.g. grain mountains.
The UK government and the EU have started paying farmers to produce fewer crops. One of the ways they have done this is the Farm Woodland Scheme. Farmers are paid grants of up to £190 per hectare to plant trees on land that they would have previously farmed. There are more natural environments... WHY?? As agricultural production increased and more and more land was brought into production, areas of valuable wildlife and vegetation were destroyed. In 1991, the Countryside Stewardship Scheme was introduced to try and restore areas of valuable grassland, meadows, dunes and moorland.
Farmers are paid up to £300 per hectare to conserve and restore these environments, rather than growing crops. 1945 Today BBC Broadband: 7426 Surveys show that hedgerow loss accelerated rapidly after WW2. Up to 5000 miles of hedgerow are removed each year, although the rate of removal is now falling (2200 miles per year). Between 1945 and 1990, over 25% of Britain’s hedgerows were cleared. In parts of East Anglia, this reached 60% - why? WHY?? As the use of farming machinery has increased and the size of this machinery has grown, fields have increased in size in order to accommodate it. This has meant that hedgerows and stone walls have had to be removed.




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