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El Salvador in the 40s
Transcript of El Salvador in the 40s
Julian Moreno. General Strike (Huelga de los brazos caidos) May 9th 1944 Martinez resigned May 15 1966 Martinez is killed! New President!!! Andres Ignacio Menendez New elections! Arturo Romero (PUD)
The people (UNT)
Salvador Castaneda (PA) Putsch on October 20th 1944 Osmin Aguirre Rebellion in 1944 (December) United States always involved New (arranged) Elections Gral. Castaneda Castro CROS in 1947 Revolution in 1948 Castaneda Castro overthrown
on December 14th 1948 New government...again. Consejo de Gobierno Revolucionario Bridge to an urbanization process
later on... 1940 Hernandez Martinez’s government invested 66% more of the budget in Education. 1944 STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Primary Education
From 1st to 6th grade Bachillerato en Ciencias y Letras,
Arte y Tenedor de Libros Careers
*Agronomist Objectives and Purposes of the 1940’s reform The creation of an individual entity that would deal with educational affairs.
Improvement of human resources.
To set and keep a sequence for the new plans. Education was set under the following principles Education is an obligation.
The state and municipalities are obligated to give financial support to schools.
Education must be secular.
Education regardless in public or private schools is subject to surveillance and control from the government. Education had the following purposes People should be form based on civic education.
The government must encourage formal and non formal education.
Establishments used for such activities will be organized and controlled by the executive power.
Only the government can authorize academic degree titles to perform functions as professionals. REFORMA EDUCATIVA 1940 General Maximiliano Martinez
•Begins his administration in 1931
•8 years later. First movement on education called REFORMA EDUCATIVA. IMPULSORES
•Manuel Luís Escamilla
•Luis Samuel Cáceres
•Carlos Monterrosa REFORMA EDUCATIVA
•Primary school is the only level in which the reform is implemented
Teaching training PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO/PLANES
Jornalizations (10 per each eschool year)
Goal: to establish a guide in order to avoid bunch of contents 1945 Dictatorships in Guatemala and El Salvador. Doctor Jose Arevalo and General Salvador Castaneda Castro wanted to pursue the same dream as Francisco Morazán. The first step was designed a common education system.
July 22nd-28th,1945 meetings held in Santa Ana. Pre-school and elementary education changed. Basic Plan (Plan Básico) Changes in Secondary School
The reform introduces the concept of wide general education. High- Schools specialized in Science and Language were created.
Secondary was divided into two levels:
- 3 years of secondary-school (Basic Plan)
- 2 years of high- school
Lack of qualify teachers. Decentralization and distance education between 1945 - 1949 During the administration of El Consejo de Gobierno Revolucionario (1948-1950) promoted some series of publications to maintain motivation and curriculum improvements to achieve the goals that had been designed for teachers. Teachers received little books that provided specific information and material about the programs and suggested methodological advances. Teachers had other books of
broad topics such as “LAS TRES DOTRINAS, MONROE, DRANGON Y MELENDEZ”. There were some other specific and remarkable books for teacher to get information about the advances and improvement in methodological aspects and publications; this publications were called CORREO ESCOLAR RURAL, this was published for four years and got 20 different papers for teaching pedagogy, this was a real school mail links to teachers, these methodological and information included suggestions for teachers in order to improve their teaching- learning process. Best years for exportation in
El Salvador REFORM BACKGROUND
Improve the quality of Primary Education.
School life based on: industry, arts, social, discipline, sports and techiques.
Instituto Psicopedagogico Nacional.