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Transcript of Attachment
Anxious (Resistant) 1 Secure Base
2 Safe Haven
3 Proximity Maintenance God Image Adult Attachment Style And God Image References Implicit Relational Knowing
Correspondence Hypothesis Internal Working Model Religion as Attachment guide humans’ cognitive, emotional, motivational, and behavioral functioning in relationships Individual differences in attachment will have implications for religious development The divine attachment figure as personally experienced Experiences in Relationships with Human Attachment Figures i.e. caregivers, friends,
mentors, etc. Development of Relational knowing for human interaction Development of Corresponding ways to interact with Divine Attachment Figure Implicit Religious Functioning Emotional, Physiological, Relational, Non-Verbal level of functioning Anxious- God as fearful and preoccupied Securely attached adults more likely to have secure attachment to God No difference between God-attachment and religious commitment Securely attached ppl viewed God as more loving, less, controlling, and less distant than insecurely attached Attachment Related Functions Relational Factors Self-Reflection Insecure Attachment Strategies -Infant and adult attachment similar
-Adult: proximity seeking, safe haven & secure base (Fraley & Davis, 1997)
-3 components transferred in order
-Romantic relationship=2 years; friendship=5.5 years -Mutual caring, support, trust & intimacy required before transfer of attachment functions
-Individual’s perceived positive security of their peer = more likely to transfer attachment-related functions -Ability to understand psychological states, emotions & motivations of self and others With security, the child/adult will focus on mental activity & not relationship patterns (Fonagy et al. 1991)
God as secure caretaker for his children; God gives us ability to self-reflect Anxious style= increase behaviors to maintain proximity (hyperactive)
Avoidant style= avoid proximity, maintain emotional distance (deactivating)
Insecure styles: rely on the secondary attachment strategies Strengthening Security of Attachment Cognitive and Emotional Factors Application to Counseling Security Priming Interpersonal Skills Topic of Discussion: Attachment Style and Attachment to God are strongly correlated only for those with a weak maternal attachment For those who report a strong maternal attachment, adult attachment style and attachment to God hold a weak and non-significant correlation Interesting Findings:
1 Creation, maintenance & restoration of a sense of attachment security increases resilience & improves mental health (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2012)
2 increased sense of security, sensitivity and supportiveness in counselor; depression decreased, for 18 months after (Zuroff & Blatt, 2006) Utilizing Counselor as Safe Haven -Insecure individuals have irrational beliefs that block attachment
-Disputing irrational beliefs allows for healthier behaviors
-Interaction with a safe attachment figure (God, parent or counselor) offers sense of security and promote learning emotional regulation strategies Psychoeducation Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
http://www.bia-sport.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/confused-look.jpg Pictures Information Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: clinical applications of attachment theory. London, UK: Routledge.
Cassidy, J., & Kobak, R. R. (1988). Avoidance and its relationship with other defensive processes. In Belsky, J., & Nezworski, T. (eds). Clinical implications of attachment. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, p. 300-323.
Dumont, K., Jenkins, D., Hinson, V., & Sibcy, G. (2012). God’s Shield: The Relationship between God Attachment, Relationship Satisfaction, and Adult Child of an Alcoholic (ACOA) Status in a Sample of Evangelical Graduate Counseling Students. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(1). 51-65.
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G. S., & Higgitt, A. C. (1991). The Capacity for Understanding Mental States: The Reflective Self in Parent and Child and It Significance for Security of Attachment. Infant Mental health Journal, 12(3), 201-218.
Fraley, R. C., & Davis, . E. (1997). Attachment formation and transfer in young adults’ close relationships and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, p. 131-144.
Granqvist, P., Mikulincer, M., Gewirtz, V., & Shaver, P. R. (2012). Experimental findings on god as an attachment figure: Normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(5), 804-818. doi: 10.1037/a0029344
Hall, T. W., Fujikawa, A., Halcrow, S. R., Hill, P. C., & Delane, H. (2009). Attachment to god and implicit spirituality: Clarifying correspondence and compensation models. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 37(4), 227-242.
Hazan, C., Hutt, M. J., Sturgeon, J., & Bricker, T. (1991). The process of relinquishing parents as attachment figures. Paper presented at the biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.
Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1992). An attachment-theoretical approach to romantic love and religious belief. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(3), 266-275. doi: 10.1177/0146167292183002
Mikulincer, M. and Shaver, P. R. (2012). An attachment perspective on psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 11, 11-15. Questions??? God attachment was a significant predictor of relationship satisfaction, Dumont, Jenkins, Hinson and Sibcy, (2012)