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Copy of Solutions, acids, and bases
Transcript of Copy of Solutions, acids, and bases
into ions as it dissolve is called DISSOCIATION. Sugar dissolves
in water by dispersion,
or breaking into small
pieces that spread
throughout the water. The Process in which neutral molecules The process in
or lose electrons
is known as ionization Solutions, Acids, and Bases Dissolving: Substances can dissolve in water in three ways- by dissociation, dispersion, and ionization. Dissociation of Ionic Compounds- The process in which an ionic compound separates into ions at it dissolves is called dissociation. Dispersion of Molecular Compounds Sugar dissolves in water by dispersion or breaking into small pieces that spread throughout the water. Ionization of Molecular Compounds: The process in which neutral
molecules gains or loses
electrons known as ionization Properties of Liquid
Solutions: Conductivity: When hydrogen chloride ionizes in water, the resulting solution conducts on electric current. Freezing Point Boiling Point: The presence of solute affect how a solvent freezes. A solute can raise the boiling point of the solvent. Heat of Solution During the formation of solution,
energy is either absorbed or release. 1. Formation Of Solutions- 2. Solubility and Concentration- The maximum amount of a solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature is called solubility. Solubility: Saturated Solutions Unsaturated Solutions Supersaturated Solutions A Saturated solution is one that contains as much solute as the solvent can hold at a given temperature. An Unsaturated solution
is a solution that has less
than the maximum amount
of solute that can be dissolved. A supersaturated solution
is one that contains more
solute than it normally hold
at a given temperature Factors Affecting Solubility: Polar And Nonpolar Solvents: Solution formation is more likely to happen when solute and solvent are either both polar or nonpolar. Temperature: Gases usally become less soluble as the temperature of the solvent increases. Pressure: Pressure is used to force carbon dioxide (CO2) to dissolve in the liquid Concentration of Solution: Percent by Volume: Percent by volume is a way too measure the concentration of one liquid to another 3. Properties of Acids And Bases- Percent by Mass: Percent by mass is the percent of a solution total that is accounted by a solute. Molarity: Molarity is the number of moles a solute dissolved per liter of solution. Acids have certain chemical and physical properties that are similar. Sour Taste Reactivity With Metals Identifying Acids: an acid is a compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water. Color Change In Indicators Foods that taste sour often contain citric acid. The reaction between an acid and an example of a simple replacement reaction. Most common indicator is a litmus, a kind of dye derived from the plant lichen. Identifying Bases Bitter Taste Slippery Feel In a solution containing a base phenolphthalein is red. A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. Neutralization And Salts The reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. The neutralization between an acid and a base produces a salt and water mixtue Proton Donors And Acceptors Acids can be defined as donors and bases can be defined as acceptors. Bases accept protons, forming water molecules. Acids lose or donate protons. 4. Strength Of Acids And Bases The pH of a solution is a measure of its hydronium ion concentration. The pH scale can help classify solutions as acids or bases. Strong Acids And Bases Strong Acids: when acids dissolve in water, they ionize almost completely. Strong Bases: strong bases dissociate almost completely. Weak Acids And Bases Weak Acids Weak Bases Buffers- is a solution that is resistant to large change in pH. The pH Scale Electrolytes an electrolyte is a substance that ionizies or dissociates into ions when dissolves in water. Three physical properties of a solution that can differ from those of its solute and solvent are conductivity, freezing point, and the boilig point. THANK YOU.......