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Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process
Transcript of Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process
- information remembered in ways that are more familiar – related to cultural background
-schema theory (Bartlett) = information processed and organized based on previous knowledge simplifies information
- cultural schemas created based on culture Cultural background influences memory English participants
-read Native American folk tale The War of the Ghosts
original story 1st participant 2nd participant 3rd participant …
until 6 ~ 7 reproductions of story
2. repeated reproduction
original story interval reproduce story interval…
intervals – 15min ~ several years, different lengths Bartlett (1932) - variables not defined clearly difficult to measure & compare outcome
- European American & Native American culture low generalization
- participants not told to be accurate as possible Limitation more reproductions story became shorter
distortions: culturally unfamiliar words changed into familiar ones
eg. “canoes” “boats”
“hunting seals” “fishing” Evaluation - cultural content of story unfamiliar to participants
story reconstructed to fit into existing cultural schemas
= easier to relate, remember & understand
= construction of memory influenced by knowledge/ideas developed in cultural background 1st part: asked Liberian children to recall familiar items
2nd part: presented the familiar items in a narrative. Cole and Scribner (1974) plate
hat Result non-schooled children schooled children Schooled children Schoolchildren in Liberia and the United States learned the list rapidly by using categorical method (chunking) Non-schooled children 1st part: Used very little of clustering
2nd part: They clustered the objects according to the roles they played in the story. - the extent to which it is culture or environment (schooling) that influenced memory and categorization is not clear.
- difficult to say anything definite about cause-effect relationships. Limitation non-schooled Liberian participants hardly improved their performance after the age 9 or 10. schooled Liberian participants were able to recall rapidly much the way the US school children of the same age did.