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Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process

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Emily Kneller

on 7 December 2012

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Transcript of Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process

Discuss how social or cognitive factors affect one cognitive process Emily and Yuri the ideas and knowledge we develop in a cultural setting can influence how memory is constructed. The effect of social or cultural factors on Cognitive Process Cultural background influences memory:
- information remembered in ways that are more familiar – related to cultural background
-schema theory (Bartlett) = information processed and organized based on previous knowledge simplifies information
- cultural schemas created based on culture Cultural background influences memory English participants
-read Native American folk tale The War of the Ghosts
-reproduce story

1.serial reproduction
original story 1st participant 2nd participant 3rd participant …
until 6 ~ 7 reproductions of story

2. repeated reproduction
original story interval reproduce story interval…
same participant
intervals – 15min ~ several years, different lengths Bartlett (1932) - variables not defined clearly difficult to measure & compare outcome

- European American & Native American culture low generalization

- participants not told to be accurate as possible Limitation more reproductions story became shorter

distortions: culturally unfamiliar words changed into familiar ones

eg. “canoes” “boats”

“hunting seals” “fishing” Evaluation - cultural content of story unfamiliar to participants

story reconstructed to fit into existing cultural schemas

= easier to relate, remember & understand

= construction of memory influenced by knowledge/ideas developed in cultural background 1st part: asked Liberian children to recall familiar items
2nd part: presented the familiar items in a narrative. Cole and Scribner (1974) plate
cup cutlass
hammer potato
coconut trousers
head tie
hat Result non-schooled children schooled children Schooled children Schoolchildren in Liberia and the United States learned the list rapidly by using categorical method (chunking) Non-schooled children 1st part: Used very little of clustering
2nd part: They clustered the objects according to the roles they played in the story. - the extent to which it is culture or environment (schooling) that influenced memory and categorization is not clear.
- difficult to say anything definite about cause-effect relationships. Limitation non-schooled Liberian participants hardly improved their performance after the age 9 or 10. schooled Liberian participants were able to recall rapidly much the way the US school children of the same age did.
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