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Catechetical Saints timeline
Transcript of Catechetical Saints timeline
46 year episcopate in Alexandria Present at the Council of Nicea "For this is why the Word became man, and the Son of God became the Son of man: so that man, by entering into communion with the Word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a son of God." St. Anthony of the Desert friend of Athanasius who took refuge with him during exiles Monasticism preserved orthodoxy For not from writings, nor from worldly wisdom, nor through any art, was Anthony renowned, but solely from his piety toward God. St. Ambrose of Milan +397 Unique format of the Catechumenate, resembling Jewish program but Christ-centered Refuted Arianism with Ambrosian hymns "To us Christ is all!" Brought Augustine into the Church St. Cyril of Jerusalem Father of the Liturgical Year +386 Bishop of Jerusalem, exiled 16/35 years because of the Arians "The synthesis of faith was not made to accord with human opinions, but rather what was of the greatest importance was gathered from all the Scriptures, to present the one teaching in its entirety." St. Eusebius of Caesarea Father of Church History Wrote a Christocentric history of the Church "It is my purpose... to record... the mercy and benevolence which Our Savior has afforded them all." St. Jerome Father of Scripture Scholarship Translated the Bible into Latin Known for having a hot- tempered character "I am with whoever is united to the teaching of St. Peter." St. Gregory Thaumaturge Mary and John the Apostle appear to him Great miracles are attributed to him John the Apostle gave him a creed "John... declared that he was completely willing to please the Mother of the Lord even in this matter and that this was the one thing closest to his heart." St. Vincent of Lerins +420 +270 +434 Wrote "A Commentary Against Heretics" Desired all to know the true faith "...he confuted them by general, clear principles, which overturn all heresies to the end of the world." Tertullian Made great contribution to Christian thought Became intellectually arrogant (heretic) St. John Chrysostom "Golden-mouth" Known for his catechumenate "It is of course foolish, if we are to judge God by our own conceptions." "Would you like to see God glorified by you? Then rejoice in your brother's progress and you will immediately give glory to God." St. Augustine of Hippo "Late have I loved you, O Beauty ever ancient, ever new, late have I loved you!" Was a Manichean before his conversion +430 Mother was St. Monica who prayed for his conversion Father of Christian Philosophy and Catechetics Celtic Monasticism St. Hilary +368 Bishop of Poiters Exiled for refuting Arianism Tried to refuse election as Bishop while husband and father St. Martin of Tours +397 Discharged from Roman army, went to Poitiers with Bishop Hilary secret catechumen at age 10 Founded first monastic community in Gaul "... I am a soldier of Christ and it is not lawful for me to fight." Monasticism St. Basil the Great +379 Founder of Eastern Monasticism Monk and theologian worked against Iconoclasts "Beside each believer stands an angel as protector and shepherd leading him to life." St. Benedict of Nursia +547 Founder of Western Monasticism Sent to Rome to study but was revolted by their immorality and fled to the mountains Determined to live a solitary life but attracted many followers "Pray and work." St. Scholastica +543 Twin sister of St. Benedict founded a monastery visited each other once a year and she called up a storm when he visited her the day before she died “I asked a favor of you and you refused. I asked it of God and he granted it.” Pope St. Gregory the Great +604 From a wealthy family (mother is St. Sylvia), and left it all to become a Benedictine Had a profound spirituality and gave the papacy its direction from his election until the Middle ages Wrote on the duties of the Bishop, of which the first is physician of souls "The only true riches are those that make us rich in virtue." St. Augustine of Canterbury +605 Sent by Pope St. Gregory the Great to evangelize England Inculturation: first to substitute pagan feasts for Christian holidays "He who would climb to lofty heights must go by steps, not by leaps." St. Willibrord +739 St. Boniface Apostle to Fresia (Netherlands) founded a monastery in Luxemburg, work spread to Denmark Baptized the son of Charles Martel who became King of the Franks +755 Had a deep love for God at age 5 and greatly desired to be devoted to God through monasticism had a passion for unevangelized countries Chopped down the oak tree to Jupiter and built a church there "Let us stand fast in what is right, and prepare our souls for trial. Let us wait upon God's strengthening aid..." In reference to the Arians:
"They didn't know who they were." St. Patrick +461 As a slave discovered God as his "anam-cara", soul friend Born in Scotland, captured by Irish traders and held in slavery After returning home, went back to Ireland and founded Armagh "Neither must we fear any such risk in faithfully preaching God's name boldly in every place..." St. Ninian +432 St. Finnian of Clonard St. Brendan the Navigator St. Columba Apostle to the Picts learned Monasticism from Martin of Tours Established Candida Casa/ Whithorn in Scotland +549 studied under St. Ninian "Teacher of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland" set up a community in Clonard +577 Foundation at Clonfert on the banks of the Shannon made many voyages in carraghs, even to Newfoundland +597 Pilgrim of Christ Founded monasteries all over Ireland, his homeland Committed first recorded breach of copyright Made 54 trips between Ireland and Scotland, strove to preserve Gaelic culture Settled on the island Iona and expelled the Druids St. Aidan made bishop of Lindisfarne helped establish Celtic church in Northumbria +651 St. Kevin Abbot of Glendalough which he founded Baptized by St. Cronan, educated by St. Petroc +618 St. Columbanus +615 Traveled from Leinster through Luxeuil, Gaul to Bobbio, Italy Refused to baptize illegitimate sons of the Royal family Sent monks as far as Bavaria Blessed Edmund Rice +1844 Founder of the Irish Christian Brothers Pioneer in Catholic Education and defender of the Faith Mother Catherine McCauley +1841 Foundress of the Sisters of Mercy Many Mercy Sisters nursed the wounded on the battlefield during the Civil War Venerable Matt Talbot +1925 Had an intense conversion from a life of drunkenness Modeled his life on the 6th and 7th century Irish monks Charlemagne +814 Helped Pope Leo III regain respect after scandal and is crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800 in return Warrior for 25 years, war with Saxons and Spain, executed Saxons: choose baptism or death Alcuin of York Chief architect of education reform under Charlemagne modified the use of the Roman liturgy off which the current liturgy is based seeds planted for an age of great scholarship +804 St. Ansgar St. Wenceslaus St. Stephen of Hungary +865 Born in France to a noble family, became a monk Bishop of Hamburg Apostle to Sweden +935 King of Bohemia in 925 Assassinated when betrayed by his brother +1038 Crowned King of Hungary in 1000 Founded many dioceses St. Edward +1066 King of England, 1042 Generous to the poor and caring for the needy Edward the Confessor St. Stanislaus +1097 Studied in Paris, ordained Bishop of Cracow 1071 Rebuked King Boleslaus, martyred St. Bruno +1101 Born in Cologne, educated in Paris, taught theology Founded first Carthusian monastery served as Pope Urban II's legate St. Henry +1146 Born in Bavaria, elected Emperor Worked for Church reform and fostered missionary activity St. Bernard of Clairvaux +1153 Father of
Spiritual Theology Joined Cistercians (new) with father, brothers, friends due to schism, undertook many missions of peace for the Pope St. Thorlakur Thorhallsson +1193 Born in Iceland, studied in England and Paris At the age of 15 he was a deacon and celebrated his first Mass at the age of 18 Began an Augustinian monastery St. Thomas Becket +1170 Born in London, cleric of Canterbury Made chancellor to Henry II Defended Church against the King, exiled to France Killed by order of the King Mendicants St. Dominic +1221 Louis of France +1270 Observed the laws of God in everything Avoided luxury to help the poor Brought the Crown of Thorns back to France Sts. Cyril and Methodius +869 +885 Developed alphabet Developed Slavonic liturgy Translated the entire Bible into Cyrillic Apostles to the Slavs Pope Adrian II approved their mission and method Martyrs of Communism: Eastern Europe Bl. Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky +1944 Metropolitan in 1901 Led Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church through two world wars and seven political regimes Said that the Bolsheviks would destroy and devastate the Church, but tolerate it and remain faithful Ven. Fr. Walter Ciszek, SJ American priest who went to Russia to serve the people arrested in 1941 as a Vatican spy, in Lubyahka prison, then Siberia until 1963 Greatest security is in abandoning my will to do God's Will Bl. Cardinal Aloysius Stephanic +1984 +1960 Cardinal Archbishop of Zagreb refused to nationalize the Croatian Church refused to testify against the spiritual director of the seminary Bl. Vincent Bossilkov +1952 Passionist priest of Bulgaria Bishop of Nikopol "Don't worry about me, I am already clothed with God's grace and have remained faithful to Christ and to the Church." executed in a Sofia prison Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski +1981 Chaplain for underground Polish resistance during World War II imprisoned for opposition of the government Karol Cardinal Woytyla
(Blessed Pope John Paul II) "Quietly outspoken priest" against communism Studied in underground seminary during the Nazi regime Fr. Jerzy Popieluszko +1984 young Polish priest seminary interrupted by 2 years of military service, beaten several times for living Christian faith Said Mass for Polish Solidarity workers Kidnapped, beaten, thrown into deep reservoir; a martyr. Scholastics Peter Lombard +1160 (not a saint) Wrote "The Sentences" which covers the whole of Christian doctrine "Magister Sentiarum" "Via media" to find a way between reason and dogma; although not accepted well at the time, Lateran IV (1215) supported his work Alexander of Hales +1245 (not a saint) wrote "Summa Universae Theologiae" systematic discussion of doctrine first to use Aristotle "Unanswerable Doctor" St. Albert the Great +1280 (Doctor) Teacher of Thomas Aquinas; used Aristotle Attended Council of Lyons worked out plan of studies for Dominicans "Universal Doctor" St. Francis of Assisi +1226 "I am the herald of the great King." +2005 Bl. John Duns Scotus +1308 First Theologian of note to proclaim the teaching of the Immaculate Conception Subtle Doctor Bl. Fra Angelico, OP +1455 Painted frescoes in his fellow brothers' cells of the life of Christ Protestant Reformation Pre-Reformers Jan Hus +1415 John Wycliffe +1384 Martin Luther Germany +1546 "95 Thesis" Sola Scriptura, Sola Fide, Sola Gratia John Calvin Geneva +1564 Predestination, rejected papal authority, sola fide Henry VIII England +1547 motivated by desire for an heir and a divorce St. Thomas More St. John Fisher Chancellor of England Bishop of Rochester Only two public figures to speak out openly against the King *influenced by Thomas Cromwell "Oxford Martyrs'' Martyrs of the Anglican Church Cranmer Latimer Ridley Counter-
Reformation St. Pius V +1572 1st Dominican Pope Aimed for program of renewal from Trent Excommunicated Elizabeth I St. Edmund Campion +1581 Jesuit priest Took oath of supremacy, but converted by witness of Gregory Martin tortured in
Tower of London "I am a Catholic man and a priest; in that faith have I lived and in that faith I intend to die." St. Henry Walpole +1595 at the Champion's execution, was splattered with his blood Inspired by Champion's faith; joined the Jesuits in Rome Arrested in England, worst torture of all English martyrs Blessed John Forest Chaplain to Henry VIII's first wife Catherine of Aragon Wrote a treatise on the primacy of the Catholic Church and the Pope. Was arrested for this. +1538 John Jones and John Wall Born in England Studied for the priesthood in France
returned to work in England until arrested +1598 +1679 Nicholas Pieck and Companions +1572 Friars minor hung from rafters by Calvinists St. Philip Neri +1595 formed by the Dominicans went to Rome, the only reason why being that God wanted him to-- no other plans Apostle in Rome "I have been wounded by love" Founded the Oratorians Bl. John Henry Newman +1890 Set out to prove that the Anglican Church was true and the Catholic Church was Arian, but found the opposite true defended and explained the teachings of the Church through preaching and writing Personal influence was his method St. Francis de Sales +1622 His father wanted him to have a secular career, became a priest wrote pamphlets to approach the people Doctor of Divine Love St. Charles Borromeo +1584 Uncle was Pope Pius IV Convinced his uncle to reconvene Trent Started Visitation order with widow Jane Francis de Chantal who was under the direction of Vincent de Paul; Margaret Mary Alacoque was one of these sisters Fidelis of Singmaringin, OFM. Cap. +1622 refuted Zwingli's and Calvin's errors by preaching and writing Prayed to never fall into mortal sin and to die for the faith Protomartyr for Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith St. Gregory Barbarigo +1697 Cardinal Archbishop of Padua Implemented Trent reforms St. Claude de la Colombiere, SJ +1682 Spiritual director of
St. Margaret Mary Alacoque Sent to prison because he was accuse of trying to blowing up Parliament Chaplain to the Duchess of York, wife to future James II Appeared to Juan Diego, a native Indian, whose people were persecuted by the Spanish "Roses in December"; image in Tilma: evangelization, catechesis, and inculturation A widower and devout Catholic who was 56 when he receive this apparition, Juan Diego spent the rest of his life telling the story of Our Lady of Guadalupe "Know for certain, my dearest son and understand that I have many servants and messengers who I could charge with the delivery of my message. I HAVE CHOSEN YOU." Cristobal, Antonio, Juan Child Martyrs of Tlaxcala +1527-1529 Cristobal tried to convert his family but was killed by his father Antonio and Juan accompanied Dominican Bernardino de Minaya to Oaxaca. All were martyred. First lay martyrs in the New World St. Ignatius Loyola +1556 Founder of the Jesuit order Wrote Spiritual Exercises "Go forth and set the world on fire." Bl. Peter Faber +1546 According to Ignatius, most gifted in giving spiritual exercises "Christ Jesus, may your death be my life..." Jesuit Martyrs of Uraguay and Paraguay St. Roch Gonzalez St. Alphonsus Rodriquez St. Juan de Castillo +1628 St. Isaac Jogues +1646 Rene Goupil +1642 Jean de la Lande +1646 Captured by the Iroquois on his way to Sault who mutilated his hands Went to New France in 1636 to evangelize the natives unsuccessfully "My heart tells me that, if I am the one to be sent on this mission, I shall go but I shall not return. But I would be happy if our Lord wished to complete the sacrifice where he began it." Not strong enough to remain with the Jesuits, became a volunteer (donne) Captured with Isaac Jogues, endured long torture Worked at Three Rivers Killed with Isaac Jogues St. Kateri Tekakwitha was born in the village where Jogues died ten years later Jean de Brebeuf +1649 One of the first Jesuits to go to New France learned the language of the Hurons and made a grammar and dictionary of it a mystic: saw a cross in the sky which indicated his martyrdom "If there were not Paradise, could there be found men who would not walk through the fires and the flames of the Iroquois in order to draw us from hell and draw us to heaven." Gabriel Lalemant +1649 Killed with Jean de Brebeuf very weak and delicate, but suffered 15 hours of torture (12 longer than de Brebeuf) Became a Jesuit so he could be a missionary Antoine Daniel +1648 Cared for the French settlers in St. Anne's Bay started school for Huron boys at Notre Dame des Anges Had a premonition, baptized his catechumens, after Mass was attacked Charles Garnier +1649 Went to New France, worked among the Huron Decided to stay even when attacked by the Iroquois During an attack when he tried to save people, he was felled by an ax Noel Chabanel +1649 Also worked among the Huron Desired martyrdom greatly Martyred when betrayed by an apostate Christian by a hatchet "This time I hope to give myself to God once and for all and to belong to him entirely." Bl. Joseph Chiwatenhwa +1646 Native American; deep understanding of the Christian Faith translated French prayers and songs into Huron, also the images in the songs St. Francis Xavier, sJ +1552 Know the people, convince them of his sincerity, taught them Christianity from their own experience; taught their children. Left for Goa, India when another missionary became ill, never saw homeland again Went to Japan "Many, many people hereabouts are not becoming Christians for one reason only: There is nobody to make them Christians!" St. Paul Miki, SJ +1597 "As I come to this supreme moment of my life, I am sure none of you would suppose I want to deceive you. And so I tell you plainly: there is no way to be saved except the Christian way." Japanese Martyrs of Nagasaki 6 Franciscans, 3 Jesuits, 17 Franciscan Tertiaries; other than priests and religious, most of the crucified were catechists St. Peter Baptist, OFM +1597 "For the Love of God let your charity commend us to God that the sacrifice of our lives may be acceptable in his sight." In 1592, negotiated peace between Japan and Philippines, also preached the faith. Last to die. Lawrence Ruiz and Domincans A Filipino layman aided the Dominicans who secretly sailed to Japan Caught in a storm, arrested, and died from torture St. Andrew Kim Taegon +1846 First Korean priest From a family of martyrs died one year after his ordination "What I desire today is to die for God. Whether you question me today or tomorrow my answers will be the same." St. Paul Chong +1839 lay catechist tried to rebuild Korean Church, brought back priests from China Leader of the Church in Korea Victim of the Great Persecution in Korea Joseph Mukasa +1885 Proto-martyr: beheaded argued with King Mwanga over the death of the bishop protected young pages from King's homosexual advances St. Charles Lwanga +1885 Succeeded Joseph Mukasa protected the young pages Burned to death with the young boys he baptized the night before "Greater love than this no man has, than one lay down his life of his friends. Those were some of Our Lord's words. This time it is for Christ, whose grace will be sufficient for us." Child Martyrs of Uganda +1918 Daudi Okelo and Jildo Irwa were young catechists were not afraid to teach the Faith even with the chance of persecution before them When Daudi was slaughtered, Jildo said that they should kill him, too, for he was doing the same thing "I am not afraid to die. Jesus, too, died for us." Josephine Bakhita +1947 Kidnappers named her Bakhita, "unfortunate" and sold her into slavery learned about the Faith in Italy where she was sent Entered the Church and joined the religious life in the Institute of St. Magdalene of Canossa "Our Lady! Our Lady!" Bl. Junipero Serra +1784 Had difficulty getting into the Franciscans because of his health Volunteered for the Mexico mission and spent 17 years in south-central America/Mexico "First came the Indians and the missions. Then, if there was anything left over, the solders could have it."
-Mathes Founded 9 missions, converting 6,000 natives Eusebius Kino, SJ +1711 Jesuit missionary to Mexico Founded mission in lower California Shot by rebellious natives Bishop Frederick Baraga +1868 Born in Slovenia, missionary to the Upper Peninsula, MI translated numerous works into the language of the natives he was serving First Bishop of Marquette, MI St. Angela Merici +1540 Became a Franciscan Tertiary, gathered others to help her educate young girls in their area Foundress of the Urselines, the first teaching order of women Bl. Francois Montmorency de Laval +1708 As Bishop, oversaw all of North America except for New England and Spanish colonies Started Catholic school system in Canada St. Marie of the Incarnation +1673 Married, one son, widow at age 19, joined the Ursulines Founded first Ursuline convent in Quebec, taught the natives St. Marguerite Bourgeoys, CND +1700 Founder of the first active congregation of North America recruited women from France to help her teach because they were not cloistered "True it is that the cloister is a protection, but could we find a more powerful guardian that the Mother to whom the Eternal Father entrusted the Sacred Humanity of His Divine Son." St. Kateri Tekakwitha +1680 Was born in the village where St. Isaac Jogues died "Who will teach me what is most agreeable to God, that I may do it?" "Lily of the Mohawks" St. Julie Billiart +1816 Worked to hide priests and catechize during the French Revolution Became a refugee to escape the "Reign of Terror" "Whatever we are doing, we should often ask ourselves:
'How would Jesus have done this?'" St. Madeline Sophie Barat +1865 Her brother believed she was destined for great things in the Church and educated her Founded a teaching order:
the Society of the Sacred Heart St. Rose Philippine Duchesne +1852 Joined Mother Barat's order after the Visitation Sisters disbanded during the Revolution Went to New Orleans at the request of the Bishop of Louisiana During retirement, the natives to whom she ministered called her "the woman who prays always" St. Elizabeth Ann Seton +1821 First native born American saint A convert after her husband's death "Be daughters of the Church." Founder of the Sisters of Charity St. Katherine Drexel +1955 Wealthy family, feels call to religious life, advised to wait Founded the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People Bl. Mother Theodore Guerin +1856 Having entered the Sisters of Providence, went to Terre Haute, IN Established St. Mary of the Woods College and formed an independent community there Henriette Delille +1863 Born in New Orleans as a free colored woman assisted the sick and dying, catechized as a group Sisters of the Holy Face find their origin in these women "I believe in God. I hope in God. I love.
I want to live and die for God." Mother Elizabeth Lange +1882 A Haitian woman who came to Baltimore Founded the Oblates of Divine Providence St. Mary of the Cross +1909 Founded first native religious community in Australia Misunderstood, was excommunicated Bl. Mary Frances Shervrier +1876 Foundress of Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis in Aachen, Germany Served the wounded in the Civil War after they moved to Cincinatti, OH Bl. Mother Angela Maria Truszkowska +1899 Founded the Felician Sisters, TOR Found refuge in the Austrian sector of Poland; sisters sent the the US to care for Polish immigrants St. Mother Marianne Cope +1918 Entered Sisters of St. Francis in Syracuse, NY; went to Oahu Worked with Fr. Damian on Molokai, caring for him, and when he died, the other lepers Mother M. Anselma +1887 Founded the Sisters of St. Francis of the Martyr St. George Joined the Sisters of the Holy Cross, separated into own community Worked with the sick and poor Pope Pius IX +1878 Gave primacy to God and spiritual values Lowered age of First Holy Communion, Penance preceding St. Maximilian Kolbe +1941 Entered Conventual Franciscans Saint of the Holocaust Pope of the Eucharist Called Vatican I Ecumenical Council Alphonse Ratisbonne +1884 A nominal Jew, hated Catholicism Converted when received an apparition of Mary Bl. Titus Brandsma, O. Carm. +1942 Involved in Catholic Press died in Dachau St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) +1942 Convert from Judaism Carmelite nun Bl. Fr. Bernard Lichtenburg +1943 Protested Nazi actions, treatment of Jews Distributed copies of Pius XI's "With Burning Anxiety" which criticized Nazism Bl. Carl Leisner +1945 Secret seminarian Arrested while a deacon Bl. Rupert Mayer, SJ +1945 Lost a leg as a World War I soldier Preached against Nazism Bl. Cardinal Clemens von Galen +1946 "The Lion of Munster" First diocesan bishop consecrated under Hitler's regime Bl. Miguel Pro, SJ +1927 Great compassion for the poor and oppressed Novitiate study in Europe because of Mexican civil war Fr. Mateo Correa Magallanes +1927 Arrested for supporting the Christeros Refused to break the seal of the confessional Fought against Freemasonry "Let this, then, be the chief goal of your apostolic work, the salvation and sanctification of the greatest number of souls." Founded community of sisters in Palestine from Holland Died a martyr in Auschwitz "I firmly believe the Lord has accepted my life as an offering for all." Died on his way to Dachau Ordained in Dachau, died a few months after the liberation "Christ, you have called me.
I say decisively and with conviction:
here I am, send me." Sachsenhausen concentration camp, house arrest in Ettal Abbey "Neither praise nor threats will distance me from God." "Do you know what I like best? To be one of those saints who at and sleep and enjoy their little frolics-- and then work so many miracles." Returned to Mexico during the time of the Cristeros movement, sought peace during time of executions Secretly dispensed the Sacraments and catechized "Cheer up, God loves the martyrs... one moment and we are in Heaven." Desired to be a soldier Saint of the Incarnation Crib, Cross, Eucharist "Do not be afraid" Martyrs All Glory to God!