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Epic Concept Map AP Biology

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Joshua Fortune

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of Epic Concept Map AP Biology

Evolutionary Basics
Evolution In-depth
Cell Cycle
Viral Storm
A complex set of stages highly regulated with checkpoints that determine what happens to the cell
Speciation
Sympatric Speciation
Animals use visual, audible, tactile, electrical, and chemical signals to indicate dominance, find food, establish territory, and ensure reproductive success
Interactions
To show that a population has undergone evolution
Darwin says,
"Don't be the worst; you'll die!"
Virus: Protein coat and Genetic information
Utilize efficiency in duplication to speed up evolution
Can transfer genetic material through transduction
Epic Concept Map
AP Biology
Joshua Fortune
Jeremy Balemala

Lytic cycle

Viral lifecycles
Natural Selection picks individuals best suited for the environment
Natural Selection
New species - new genes
These new genes are new segments of genetic material on chromosomes

The closer two genes are on a chromosome, the more likely they are to travel as a unit

Sometimes these genes code for traits that do not follow Mendel's ratios, and will yield phenotypic ratios statistically different from predicted ratios
Results of Speciation
Viruses were first discovered by Dmitri Ivanovsky who was studying the transmission of Tobacco mosaic virus
Prokaryotic Viruses
Prokaryotic viruses can be split into two subcategories:
Virulent Phages
Lytic Cycle:
Infection->Synthesis->Assembly->Release
Temperate Phages
Lysogenic Cycle
Viral DNA hides in hosts DNA for later activation
Copied with host's DNA
Transfers to Lytic cycle when necessary
Eukaryotic Viruses
Eukaryotic viruses are more diverse than bacteriophages
Eukaryotic viruses can be
Single stranded
Double stranded
Eukayotic viruses can contain
RNA
DNA
Infection
Synthesis
Assembly
Release
Lysogenic cycle
Viral DNA spliced into host genome
Host replication - Viral DNA replication
Viral proteins are synthesized by host cell
Virus goes lytic and infects new host cells
Gene pool diversity = better survival in changing environment
Adaptation - Genetic variation favored by selection, usually seen as a visible trait
Changes in DNA drive evolution, and a few unchanged, similar segments in many species proves U.C.A.
Genetic Material
Watson & Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin - Structure of DNA
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty - Further proved DNA was the genetic material
Hershey & Chase - Used phages to prove DNA is the genetic material
RNA vs. DNA
Ribose sugar
Uracil
Single stranded
Deoxyribose sugar
Thymine
Double stranded
Antiparallel strands (3' 5')
Adenine - Thymine/Uracil || Cytosine - Guanine
Purine ------------------Pyrimidine
Double ring structure ------- Single ring structure
Structure and Function
Protein structure is directly related to the specific order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
NH2 end (Amino end)------(Carboxyl end) COOH end
The polypeptide chain interacts with the environment to determine the overall shape of the protein, which directly affects function
Amino acid sequence
Evolution is caused by accidents - mutations in your DNA
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Large population size
Absence of migration
No net mutations
Random mating
Absence of selection
(p + q)^2 = p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Types of selection
Stabilizing selection - both extremes of a trait are pressured
Directional selection - one extreme of a trait is pressured
Disruptive selection - individuals who are between trait extremes are pressured
Evolutionary Relationships
Illustrated with Phylogenic trees and Cladograms
Evolutionary Relationships are proven through:
Vestigial structures
Similar instinct behavior
Genetic similarity
Common "building blocks"
Mutations
Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence
Caused by:
Errors during DNA replication
Radiation (usually UV)
Reactive Chemicals
*Mutations can be inherited or acquired during an indiviual's lifetime
Mutations are the primary
source of genetic variation
Examples include
Dances
Songs
Marking territory
Cooperative behavior increase overall fitness of a population
If individuals of a population are variant from one another, they will be able to respond to events differently. This dissimilarity allows a population-wide collective success.
Individuals in a population with variation help
their population to survive disease
decrease the risk of extinction from a natural disaster
new species to arise
Species live together in the same habitat
Over time, the species splits into two new distinct species
These two species are reproductively isolated and unable to mate
Allopatric Speciation
A small portion of a species becomes geographically isolated
This isolated species continues to live on in different conditions to the original species
Over time, the isolated group becomes so different that a new species is formed
Not results of Speciation
-
Sex-linked genes are located on x and y chromosomes

XX-Female
XY-Male

Y chromosome carries much less genetic information, so males are more likely to receive a genetic disorder from their parents
Mitosis
The process after a cell has replicated its chromosomes that separates the chromosomes into two identical sets of chromosomes
Usually after interphase where cell grows
Followed by cytokinesis where nucleus, cyoplasm, and other organelles divide
In almost all types of cells
Meiosis
Only sex cells (gametes)
Mitosis * 2
Cell replicates its chromosomes and separates them into two identical sets and then separates them again leaving four individual sets
Half the number of original chromosomes
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YOLOSWAG
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