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WH 23 - The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Neil Phillips

on 11 January 2017

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Transcript of WH 23 - The French Revolution and Napoleon

Section 5: The Congress of Vienna
Sec. 4: Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
Section 3: Napoleon Forges an Empire
Section 2: Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

The French Revolution brought the first democratic experiment to Europe and it failed, but it encouraged many to keep trying.
The French Revolution reached beyond Europe. It was the spark that led Mexico to end Spanish rule and Brazil to end Portuguese rule.
This increased in post French Revolution Europe. It also led to many alliances between European nations which would become troublesome in the future.
The French revolution began the push for democracy throughout Europe and the world.

Long-Term Legacy
Legitimacy, or the reassignment of European royalty back to their throne, was done because they believed that it would stabilize political relations among the nations.
The congress was successful in unifying Europe For the first time, the nations of an entire continent cooperated to control political affairs. Their settlements were fair enough that no country was left bearing a grudge. It was more successful than many other peace meetings in history.
There were no wars between European nations for 40 years.
There were still differing opinions about government in Europe. The conservative monarchies wanted to “erase” the French revolution. They did not want a democracy.
Many lower classes still favored equality and used the French revolution as their inspiration

Legitimacy
The Hundred Days
3.
Mistake #3: The
invasion of Russia
was Napoleon's most disastrous mistake and the beginning of his downfall.
France and Russia had once been allies but as the Russians refused to stop selling grain to Great Britain, this upset Napoleon. Both countries had competing desires for Poland, adding to the tensions.
In June, 1812, Napoleon and more than 420,000 soldiers invade Russia
At first, Napoleon advanced quickly, but the Russian troops pulled back, refusing to get lured into unequal battle with Napoleon.
The Invasion of Russia
Napoleon's own personality proved to be the greatest danger to the future of his empire. His desire for power had raised him to great heights, and the same love of power led him to his doom.
In his efforts to extend the French Empire, Napoleon made 3 serious mistakes that led to his downfall:
Mistake # 1 - The Continental System:
1.
1806 – napoleon set up a blockade – a forced closing of ports –
to prevent trade between Great Britain and other European nations
.
Napoleon called this his Continental System – The blockade was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient. It was also supposed to destroy British commerce and industry

Napoleon's Costly Mistakes
The "enemies of the Revolution" who troubled Robespierre the most were fellow radials who challenged his leadership, many of which received death sentences. It is believed that as many as 40,000 people were executed during his reign. 85% of which were peasants or members of the urban poor or middle class--those that the Revolution was launched to benefit the most.
1794 – Members of the National Convention, fearing for their own safety, turned on Robespierre and had him executed, ending the Reign of Terror.
7.
1795 – a third government was created, placing it in the hands of the middle class, it called for a two-house legislature and an executive body of five men, known as the
Directory
.
While not perfect, this government brought about a period of calm. It also brought in a general to lead France’s army – Napoleon Bonaparte

End of the Reign of Terror
August 4, 1789 – An all night meeting between nobles and peasants made sweeping changes. The estates were eliminated and all were considered equal.
For the nobles and the clergy, this was done more out of fear than idealism. By morning, the Old Regime was dead.
The Assembly Reforms France
Siding with the nobles, the king ordered the Estates-General to follow the medieval rules. Members of the Third Estate became more and more determined to wield power.
Their leading spokesman, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, gave a dramatic speech suggesting that the Third Estate delegates name themselves the National Assembly and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
On June 17, 1789, they voted to establish the National Assembly, in effect proclaiming an end of absolute monarchy and the beginning of a representative government.
5.
It was the
first deliberate act of the Revolution
.

National Assembly
Louis was also a weak leader with little interest in government. He was very indecisive and allowed problems to drift.
Strong leadership might have solved the problems of debt and poor harvest, but Louis had little patience for the details of governing. To add to the problem, Marie frequently offered him poor advice.
Marie was a member of the Austrian royal family and was very disliked in France. Her behavior and spending only made it worse. She spent so much that she was given the name "Madame Deficit" by the people.
Louis
The End for Chapter 23!
Conservative Europe
Across Europe, conservatives held firm control of the governments, but they could not contain the ideas that had emerged during the French Revolution.
France was deeply divided politically. Conservatives were happy with Louis XVIII's rule but liberals wanted the king to share more power with the legislature. The lower class wanted to keep liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Despite their efforts to undo the French Revolution, the leaders of the Congress of Vienna could not turn back the clock.
Political Changes Beyond Vienna
The Congress of Vienna took the following steps to make the countries around France stronger:
Creation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Austrian Netherlands + Dutch Republic)
39 Germanic states were joined to create the German Confederation, dominated by Austria
Switzerland became an independent nation
The Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa
Although they wanted to weaken France, European leaders didn't want to leave France unable to protect itself.
France was left intact, but was weakened from a major European power to a diminished European power.
They did not exact a toll placed on France for destroying the peace of Europe.
Also, no country could easily overpower another country.
Containment of France and Balance of Power
2.
Metternich had
three goals:
Prevent future French aggressions
by surrounding it with stronger nations.
Restore balance of power
so that no country would be a threat to others.
Restore European royal families back to the throne
of the countries Napoleon defeated. T
The Containment of France
The Hundred Days
The Hundred Days
Napoleon's Downfall
The Invasion of Russia
Mistake #2: The Peninsular War:
In 1808, Napoleon sends an invasion force to Portugal to get them to accept the Continental System
In order to get to Portugal, the French military had to go through Spain. This upset the Spanish. In response, Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put his own brother, Joseph, on the throne. The Spanish were now outraged, especially because they thought he would attack the church as well (they were devout Catholics).
France could easily defeat the Spanish in open war so the Spanish peasants fought a guerrilla style war.
2.
For 6 years, the Spanish guerillas, with help from British troops, fought off the French. It was a huge mistake for napoleon to fight the
Guerillas
in the Peninsular War.
Napoleon lost 300,000 troops, which weakened the French Empire.
In Spain and elsewhere in Europe, nationalism was becoming a powerful weapon against Napoleon.
The Peninsular War
In his drive for an empire Napoleon lost only one major battle:
The Battle of Trafalgar was a great naval battle in which Great Britain defeated France. This naval defeat was more important than all of his victories on land.
5. Napoleon's defeat was of special importance because it ensured British naval supremacy and forced napoleon to give up his bid to invade Great Britain
At one point, he controlled all land of Europe except Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.
the countries of Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and a number of Germanic kingdoms appeared to be independent but were puppet states under Napoleon's control.
Even the countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria were loosely attached to Napoleon's empire through alliances and were easily manipulated by threats of military action.
The French empire was huge but unstable. He was only able to control it for five years - 1807-1812. Then it quickly fell to pieces. Its collapse was caused in part by Napoleon's actions.
The End of Napoleon??
1805 – Napoleon scored such great victories that Austria, Prussia, and Russia were forced to sign peace treaties with France.
Napoleon was able to create the largest empire that Europe had seen since the Roman Empire.
The only country left to conquer was Great Britain and her great naval power.

Napoleon's Empire
Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory to the US for $15 million. This provided him with money and secured the future of the US.
Napoleon now set his sights on power in Europe. He annexed the Austrian Netherlands and part of Italy to France and set up a puppet state in Switzerland
His aggressive actions caused Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden to declare war on France.
Napoleon met his opposition with his usual boldness, attacking unpredictably and causing heavy losses to his enemies.
Loss of American Territories
4.
In 1804, Napoleon decided to
make himself emperor of France
, and the French voters supported him. He was crowned in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris by the pope himself.
This gesture showed that
Napoleon was more powerful than the Church
, which had traditionally crowned the rulers of France. He was 35 years old at the time.
1803 – Napoleon decides to rid France of her colonies in America...
Napoleon Creates and Empire
3.
Napoleon saw his great work was his comprehensive system of laws, called
Napoleonic Code
. They were designed to eliminate many injustices. It was
a system of laws that limited liberty and individual rights.
It actually limited the freedoms of speech and press and restored slavery to French colonies in the Caribbean.

Napoleonic Code
2.
The Directory was dissolved and replaced with a group of three consuls, one of which would be Napoleon himself. He would take the title of first consul and would assume power of dictator. Seizing power like this was called a
coup
or coup d'etat ("blow to the state").
Napoleon did not return to the old days of the king but rather kept many of the changes of the Revolution
He set up an efficient method of tax collecting and a national bank to get the French economy back on track
He ended corruption and inefficiency in the government

Napoleon
Monarchs and nobles in many European countries watched the changes take place in France and feared similar revolts might break out in their own countries. In 1792, Austria and Prussia urged France to restore Louis to his position as an absolute monarch. The Legislative Assembly responded by declaring war.
The war started out badly for the French as the Prussians forced their way through France and threatened to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed. On August 10, about 20,000 Parisians invaded the palace where the royal family was staying. They massacred the royal guards and imprisoned Louis, Marie Antoinette, and their children.

War and Execution
Back to Louis and Marie Antoinette
These rights did not apply to women - writer Olympe de Gouges published a declaration of the rights of women, with her ideas being rejected. Later, in 1793, she was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed.
Many of the Assembly's early reforms focused on the Church. The Assembly took control of Church lands and declared that Church officials and priests were to be elected and paid as state officials. The church would no longer be independent of the state. Its lands would be sold to pay off French debt.
This upset many peasants who were devout Catholics. They believed the pope should rule over a church independent of the state, causing some peasants to oppose any other Assembly reforms.

The Rights of "MAN"?
and a State-Controlled Church
Execution

Great Fear – A period of peasant uprising against the nobles and eventually the king and queen
They killed many nobles and burned and looted their farms
6.
In October 1789, thousands of Parisian women
rioted over the rising price of bread.
They marched on Versailles with weapons in hand. they demanded the National Assembly provide bread, then turned their anger on the king and queen. They broke into the palace, killing some guards on their way.
They demanded that Louis and Marie Antoinette return to Paris. Louis eventually agreed, leaving the palace a few hours later, never to see it again. Their exit signaled the change of power and radical reforms about to overtake France.
Effects

It was symbolic because only 7 prisoners were left in the Bastille to be freed.
Gun power and guns were captured though
Bastille
Bastille – a prison which was also used to store weapons
In fear, fueled by rumors, on July 14, 1789 the peasants stormed the Bastille in order to free prisoners and gain control of weapons. It was a symbolic act of the Revolution. That day is remembered today as Bastille Day in france

Storming the Bastille
Marie had been unpopular ever since she set foot in France. Louis and Marie seemed oblivious to the problems of debt that they were helping create.
Rather than cutting expenses, Louis put off dealing with the emergency until he practically had no money left. They spent so heavily that they doubled France’s debt to the point that France could no longer get loans from other countries.
4.
His solution to the debt problem was to
heavily tax the 3rd Estate
Louis XVI

Workers – They were urban people and the poorest group. They included tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, and domestic servants. They were paid low wages and were often unemployed

Bourgeoisie – or middle class were bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. Many were well educated and wealthy, but they paid high taxes and lacked privileges

Background
1700’s – France was considered the most advanced country in Europe. It had a large population and wealth, mostly from trade. It was also the center of the Enlightenment. France's culture was widely praised and imitated by the rest of the world. But the surface was deceiving. There was unrest brewing, caused by bad harvests, high taxes, and disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Rousseau, and Voltaire.

Sec. 1: The French Revolution Begins
Ch. 23: The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815

Most of the decisions made in Vienna during the winter of 1814-15 were made in secret among the five great powers (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France.
1.
The most influential of these representatives was the foreign minister of Austria,
Prince Klemens von Metternich
.
Metternich distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution and felt that Napoleon's behaviors had been a natural outcome of experiments with democracy. He wanted to keep things as they were.
Metternich's Plan for Europe
Napoleon's End
On June 18, 1815, Napoleon attacked the Duke's army and the British defended its ground all day.
Late in the afternoon, the Prussian army arrived and together, the British and Prussian forces attacked the French.
Two days later, Napoleon's exhausted troops gave way, and the British and Prussian forces chased them from the field.
6. The British and Prussian won the Battle of Waterloo
.
On March 1, 1815 Napoleon fled the island of Elba and landed in France to tremendous support. Thousands volunteered to join his army and within days he again becomes emperor of France.
The European allies got their armies together and planned for war. The British army, led by the Duke of Wellington, prepared for battle near the village of Waterloo in Belgium.
The Hundred Days
As the snows and the temperature began to fall in early November, Russian raiders mercilessly attacked Napoleon's retreating army. Many soldiers were killed in the clashed or died of their wounds.
Still more dropped in their tracks from exhaustion, hunger, or the cold.
The retreat from Moscow had devastated the Grand Army, leaving only 10,000 soldiers to fight another day.
Napoleon's Downfall
4 & 5.
On their retreat, the
Russians
practiced a scorched-earth policy – As the Russians retreated, they burned every grain field and slaughtered all livestock
leaving nothing for the French army to eat, nor a place for them to take shelter
.
The two forces finally clashed at the Battle of Borodino in Russia. After hours of indecisive fighting, the Russians fell back, allowing Napoleon to take the burning Moscow. Napoleon staying in the ruined city until the middle of October, when he decided to turn back to France.
Napoleon's Downfall
The Invasion of Russia
The blockade was not very tight so smuggling goods was fairly easy. Plus it was violated by most European nations including some run by Napoleon’s relatives. It weakened British trade, but it did not destroy it.
Great Britain responded with its own blockade and because it had a superior navy, it worked.
The British stopped neutral ships bound for the continent and forced them to sail to a British port to be searched and taxed.
American ships were also searched, causing the War of 1812 (didn't cause any inconvenience to Britain in its struggle with Napoleon)
The Continental System
When Napoleon seized power, France was still at war. Now, though, Britain, Austria and Russia all joined forces with one goal in mind, to drive Napoleon from power.
Napoleon would ride out of Paris with his men and eventually, as a result of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace agreements with France. By 1802, peace was brought back to France for the first time in 10 years.
He continued to act as the constitutionally chose leader of a free republic, not allowing France to go back to the rule of Louis XVI. He kept many of the Revolutionary changes and supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of the Revolution.
He set up lycees – government run public schools
All males of all backgrounds could receive an education
He signed a concordat – (an agreement) with the church. The government recognized church influence but did not give it government power

Napoleon Rules France
1.
In 1795, fate handed Napoleon a chance for glory. When royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, a government official told Napoleon to
defend the delegates
. Using a cannonade, he scared the attackers off, becoming the
"hero of the hour" and "savior of the French republic."
In 1796, he was asked to lead a french army against the forces of Austria and Sardinia where he would score multiple impressive victories.
1799 – With the French government in disorder (again), many urged Napoleon to seize political power
Hero of the Hour and Coup d'Etat
Napoleon Bonaparte was quite a short man - just 5'3" tall but he would be recognized as one of the world's greatest military geniuses. At age nine, his parents sent him to military school and at age 16, he finished school to become a lieutenant in the artillery. He soon joined the Revolution and the army of the new government. In just four year, from 1795 to 1799, he rose from a relatively obscure position as an officer in the french army to become master of France.
Napoleon Seizes Power
Foreign armies were not the only enemies of the French republic. The Jacobins had thousands of enemies within France itself. How to contain and control these enemies became a central issue.
Maximilien Robespierre (1793) began to assume control of France and sets out to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out every trace of France's past.
He changed the calendar (12 months of 30 days each, with new names for months) with no Sundays because religion was old-fashioned and dangerous. They closed all churches in France as well.
5.
In July 1793, Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety, governing France as a dictator, making his rule become known as the
Reign of Terror
. His chief task was to protect the Revolution from its enemies.
6.
He has thousands of “enemies” executed, many on flimsy evidence. Some had even been his supporters. Most of which were executed by
guillotine,
the most popular form of execution at the time.
He justified his use of terror by suggesting that it enabled French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution.

The Terror Grips France
The National Assembly fought for two years over a new constitution, but they decided in 1791 to create a limited monarchy:
They created a Legislative Assembly – it was set up to create new laws but the king still had the power to enforce laws
3.
France had become divided into 3 political groups –
left (radicals), right (conservatives), and center (moderates)
France still had problems with food shortages and debt. It also has issues with citizens of very different opinions. Some wanted more change while emigres (nobles and others who fled France) wanted to undo the revolution and go back to the old regime.
Others wanted to Revolution to bring more changes (Parisian workers and small shopkeepers - sans-culottes). They eventually found ways to exert their power on the streets of Paris.
Three weeks later, the National Assembly adopted a statement of revolutionary ideals, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen – similar to the Declaration of Independence
1.
It proclaimed that
“men are born free and remain free in equal rights”
It also guaranteed the rights of
“liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression,”
as well as guaranteeing citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
2. "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"

The Rights of Man
Three days later, the Third Estate found themselves literally locked out of the meeting room of the other estates so the broke down the door of an indoor tennis court and vowed to stay there until they had written a new constitution.
Eventually members of the clergy and nobles who favored reform joined the 3rd estate in their movement

Tennis Court Oath
Estates General – A meeting called by Louis XVI that included delegates from all 3 estates. It was the first such meeting in 175 years.
The 3rd Estate felt slighted as they did not have the same voting rights as the other estates so they formed their own assembly

Estates General

Monarchy
Although France’s international trade was still strong, high taxes made it difficult to do business within France. The cost of living rose and a series of bad crops led to food shortages and people began to starve

Economy

Peasants – Made up 80% of the population. They paid heavy taxes to nobles, the church, and the government. They were bitter and eager for change
Inspired by the success of the American Revolution, the peasants began questioning the long-standing notions of social structure

The clergy and the rich nobles disliked Enlightenment ideas because it threatened their status as privileged persons
3. 3rd Estate
– Made up about 97% of the population but was divided into three subgroups -
Bourgeoisie, workers of France's cities, and peasants

Social Classes
In the 1770s, the social and political systemof France remained in place. under this system, the people of France were divided into three large classes, called Estates
1.
Estates – or social classes
. France was divided into three large estates during the 1700's:
1st Estate – The church or clergy – owned 10% of the land and paid about 2% of the taxes
2.
2nd Estate –
Rich nobles
– Made up 2% of the population, owned 20% of the land, and paid almost no taxes

Social Classes
Jacobins – a ruthless radical group that took control of France. They fought for the rights of the poor and wanted to eliminate the monarchy.
Out of fear, the Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution of 1791, declaring the king deposed, dissolved the assembly, and called for the election of a new legislature.
The National Convention took office on September 21, abolishing the monarchy and declaring France a republic, and reducing Louis XVI's role to citizen and prisoner.
4. Jean-Paul Marat and Georges Danton
were the most prominent Jacobins. As editor of a newspaper, Marat called for the death of all those who continued to support the king.
The Jacobins tried Louis for treason, found him guilty, and sentenced him to death.
By early 1793, the war with Austria and Prussia grew to contend against Britain, Holland, and Spain as well. In order to respond, the National Convention ordered a draft of 300,000 male soldier.
1. What were France’s social classes known as?
2. What were members of the Second Estate called during the 1700's?
3. What group of people belonged to the Third Estate?
4. What was King Louis XVI’s solution to the economic troubles?
5. The establishment of the National Assembly by the Third Estate was the first deliberate act of ______.
6. Why did the women of Paris riot and demand the king and queen return to Paris?

Peasants were not the only members of French society to feel the Great Fear. Nobles and officers of the Church were equally afraid. Across France, bands of angry peasants struck out against members of the upper class, attacking and destroying manor houses. In the summer of 1789, some nobles and members of the clergy in the National Assembly responded to the uprising in an emotional late-night meeting.
As the National Assembly restructured the relationship between church and state, Louis XVI pondered his fate as monarch. Some advisers warned him that he and his family were in danger, others fled the country out of fear.
In June 1791, the royal family tried to escape from France to the Austrian Netherlands but were apprehended and brought back to Paris under guard. His attempt to escape increased the influence of his radical enemies in the government and sealed his fate... We'll come back to this in a minute.
Divisions Develop
Jacobins Take Control
1. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was modeled after The Declaration of Independence and had what rights? (long answer)
2. What was the slogan of the French Revolution?
3. In the Legislative Assembly, the people were divided into factions (political groups), list the 3 factions:
4. Georges Danton and Jean Paul Marat were ___.
5. What was the period in the French Revolution when Maximilien Robespierre controlled events called?
6. What was the most popular form of execution during the French Revolution?
7. The Moderates drafted a new plan for government which included an executive body of five men known as the ___.

Chapter 23, Section 2: Things to Know
1. What did Napoleon do to be called the “Hero of the Hour” and “Savior of the Republic”?
2. Napoleon seized control of France’s legislature by staging a __________ or a sudden seizure of power.
3. What was Napoleon's system of laws that limited liberty and individual rights called?
4. Why would Napoleon “crown” himself emperor?
5. Why was the French defeat in the naval battle of Trafalgar of special importance?

Chapter 23, Section 3: Things to Know
1. Napoleon’s Continental System was a policy to ___.
2. One of Napoleon’s three mistakes was fighting the ___ in the Peninsular War with Spain and Portugal.
3. Napoleon’s most disastrous mistake, and the beginning of his downfall, was his attempt to invade ___.
4. The “scorched earth policy” was used by ___.
5. The scorched earth policy was designed to ___.
6. In the Battle of Waterloo victory went to ___.
7. Napoleon’s last bid for power was known as ___.
8. Who said, "He was as great a man can be without virtue" referring to Napoleon?

Chapter 23, Sec 4: Things to Know
Napoleon's enemies were quick to take advantage of his weakness.
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden joined forces against him. Austria also declared war on Napoleon, despite his marriage to Marie Louise, grandniece of Marie Antoinette.
All of the main powers of Europe were at war with France.
In just a few months, Napoleon was ableto raise another army, though they were untrained and ill prepared for battle.
Their first battle would be at the outskirt of Germany in the city of Leipzig in October 1813.
The allied forces quickly defeated his inexperienced army and French resistance crumbled quickly.
By January of 1814, the allied armies were pushing steadily toward Paris and just two months later, the Russian and Prussian armies laid triumphant on Paris.
Napoleon wanted to fight on, but his generals refused. In April 1814, Napoleon accepted the terms of surrender and gave up his throne.
The victors gave Napoleon a small pension and exiled him to Elba, a tiny island off the Italian coast.
The allies expected no further problems from Napoleon, but they were wrong...
Louis XVI's brother assumed the throne as Louis XVIII. However, he quickly became unpopular among the people, especially the peasants, because they feared he would undo the Revolution's land reforms.
The new king's troubles were all that Napoleon needed to try to regain power.
7.
This defeat ended
Napoleon's last bid for power, called the Hundred Days
.
Taking no chances this time, the British shipped Napoleon to St. Helena, a remote island in the South Atlantic where he lived in exile for six years, writing his memoirs.
Napoleon died in 1821 of stomach ailment, probably cancer.
Without a doubt, Napoleon was a military genius and a brilliant administrator.
All of his victories and other achievements must be measured against the millions of lives lost in his wars.
8.
The French writer
Alexis de Tocqueville
summed up Napoleon's character by saying,
"He was as great a man can be without virtue."
Napoleon's defeat opened the door for the freed European countries to establish order.
1. Who was the most influential figure at the Congress of Vienna?
2. What were Metternich’s 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna?
3. What was the purpose of the Holy Alliance between Austria and Prussia?
4. The Concert of Europe ensured that nations would help one another –
5. The modern equivalent of the Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe is the -
6. The Congress of Vienna would influence world politics for how long?

Chapter 23, Section 5: Things to Know
European heads of government were looking to establish long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after the defeat of Napoleon. The new European order would be one of collective security and stability for the entire continent.
A series of meetings in Vienna, known as the Congress of Vienna, were called to set up policies to achieve this goal.
It was originally scheduled to last 4 weeks, but went on for 8 months.
The rulers of Europe were nervous about the legacy of the French Revolution, fearing that the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity might encourage revolutions elsewhere.
Late in 1815, Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia signed an agreement called the Holy Alliance.
3.
The Holy Alliance made them pledge to
base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution
.
4.
Finally, a series of alliances devised by Metternich, called the Concert of Europe,
ensured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out
.
5.
The
Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe
are equivalent to today's
United Nations
Long-Term Legacy
6.

The Congress of Vienna
left a legacy that would influence world politics for the next
100 years
.
The continent-wide efforts to establish and maintain a balance of power diminished the size and power of France, while the powers of Britain and Prussia increased.
Nationalism began to spread in Italy, Germany, Greece, and other areas that the Congress of Vienna had to put under foreign control.
Nationalist feelings would explode into revolutions, and new nations would be formed.
Colonies would take advantage of these shifts in power.
Ideas about the basis of power changed after the French Revolution. More people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all.
The French Revolution changed the social attitudes and assumptions that had dominated Europe for centuries, ushering in a new era.
Ch 23 Sec 2 and 3 - Things to Know
SEC 2
-1. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was modeled after The Declaration of Independence and had what rights? (long answer)
2. What was the slogan of the French Revolution?
3. In the Legislative Assembly, the people were divided into factions (political groups), list the 3 factions:
4. Georges Danton and Jean Paul Marat were ___.
5. What was the period in the French Revolution when Maximilien Robespierre controlled events called?
6. What was the most popular form of execution during the French Revolution?
7. The Moderates drafted a new plan for government which included an executive body of five men known as the ___.
SEC 3-
1. What did Napoleon do to be called the “Hero of the Hour” and “Savior of the Republic”?
2. Napoleon seized control of France’s legislature by staging a __________ or a sudden seizure of power.
3. What was Napoleon's system of laws that limited liberty and individual rights called?
4. Why would Napoleon “crown” himself emperor?
5. Why was the French defeat in the naval battle of Trafalgar of special importance?

Chapter 23 - Sec 4 and 5: Things to know
SEC 4-1. Napoleon’s Continental System was a policy to ___.
2. One of Napoleon’s three mistakes was fighting the ___ in the Peninsular War with Spain and Portugal.
3. Napoleon’s most disastrous mistake, and the beginning of his downfall, was his attempt to invade ___.
4. The “scorched earth policy” was used by ___.
5. The scorched earth policy was designed to ___.
6. In the Battle of Waterloo victory went to ___.
7. Napoleon’s last bid for power was known as ___.
8. Who said, "He was as great a man can be without virtue" referring to Napoleon?
SEC 5-1. Who was the most influential figure at the Congress of Vienna?
2. What were Metternich’s 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna?
3. What was the purpose of the Holy Alliance between Austria and Prussia?
4. The Concert of Europe ensured that nations would help one another –
5. The modern equivalent of the Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe is the -
6. The Congress of Vienna would influence world politics for how long?

Dawn of the Revolution
The clergy and the nobles had dominated the Estates-General throughout the Middle Ages and expected to do so in the 1789 meeting.
Under the assembly's medieval rules, each estate's delegates met in a separate hall to vote, and each estate had one vote. The two privileged estates (1st and 2nd) could always outvote the Third Estate.
The Third Estate delegates were eager to make changes in government. They insisted that all three estates meet together and that each delegate have a vote, giving the Third Estate the advantage, as they had more delegates
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