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Methods of separation of components of a mixture.

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Nikhil Pramod

on 21 June 2014

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Transcript of Methods of separation of components of a mixture.

Let Learn about the first 3:-
1)Evaporation
Sometimes a liquid can be sitting in one place (maybe a puddle) and its molecules will become a gas. That's the process called evaporation.
2)Chromatography
Liquid chromatography (LC) is useful for separating mixtures of ions or molecules that are dissolved in a solvent.
So.....What is a Mixture?
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When two or more materials or substances are mixed together but do not chemically combine.
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This means they retain their original properties.
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This means they can be separated by physical means.
3)Distillation
Distillation,process involving the conversion of a liquid into vapour that is subsequently condensed back to liquid form.
Methods of separation of components of a mixture.
By,Nikhil ,Pushpendra,Nikesh
IX-E

Activity:-
How can we obtain cloured component(Dye) from Blue/Black Ink
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Fill half a beak with water.
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Put a watch glass on the mouth of the beaker.
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Put few drops of ink on the watch glass.
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Now start heating the beaker.We do not want to heat the ink directly.You will then see the Evaporation taking place.
We find that ink is a mixture of a dye in water.Thus,we can separate the volatile component(solvent) from its non-volatile solute by the method of evaporation.
Introduction
We have learnt about natural substances which are not chemically pure.Different methods of separation are used to get individual components from a mixture.
Separation makes it easier to study individual components of a mixture.
What are the different ways of separating mixtures?
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Extraction and Evaporation
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Chromatography
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Fractional Distillation
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Hand Separation
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Magnetism
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Filtration
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Sifting or Seiving
Activity:-
Is the Dye in black ink a single Colour
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Take a thin strip of filter paper.
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Draw a line on it using a pencil.
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Put a small drop of ink, at the centre of the line.Let it dry.
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Lower the filter paper into the Jar containing water so the drop of ink on the paper is just above the water level and leave it undisturbed.
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Watch carefully,as water rises up on the filter paper.Record your Observations.
The ink that we use has water as the solvent and the dye is soluble in it.As the water rises on the filter paper it takes along the dye particles.Usually,dye has more than one colour.The coloured component that is more soluble in water,rises faster and in this way the colours get separarted.This process of separating components of a mixture is called chromatography.
Click to Zoom in video

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Activity:-
How can we separate a mixture of two miscible liquids?
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Let us try to separate scetone and water from their mixture.
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Take the mixture in a distillation flask.Fit it with a thermometer.
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Heat the mixture slowly keeping a close watch at the thermometer.
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The acetone vaporises,condenses in the condernser outlet.
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Water is left behind in the distillation flask.
This method is called distillation.It is used for separation of components of a mixture containing two miscible liquids that boil without decomposition and have sufficient difference in their boiling point.
To separate a mixture of two or more miscible liquids for which the difference in boiling points is less than 25 K,Fractional Distillation process is used.
How can we obtain different gases from air?
Air is a homgeneous mixture and can be separated into its components by fractional distillation
Air
Compress and cool by increasing pressure and decreasing temperature
Liquid Air

Allow to warm up slowly in fractional distillation cloumn
Gases get separated at different heights
The air compressed by increasing the pressure and is then cooled by decreasing the temp. to get liquid air.This liquid air is allowed to warm-up slowly in a fractional distillation column,where gases get separated at different heights depending upon their boiling points.
Thank You!! :-D
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