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Transcript of Romanticism
The Spirit of Romanticism
Elfking (Erlkonig) - Franz Schubert
-German-texted solo vocal song, generally with piano accompaniment
Romanticism in Music
The Industrial Revolution brought the means to create more affordable and responsive musical instruments, affecting the sound of Romantic music.
- piston valves are fully developed and used
: tuba, saxophone, piccolo, English horn
- built with a cast-iron frame and thicker strings,
deeper, more brilliant tone
Mozart - Chopin or Lizst
Romanticism in Music
Orchestra gets new high and low ranges, and timbres (piccolo, contrabassoon)
as well as new dynamics (fff-very loud) (ppp-very soft)
New musical terms:
con amore (with love, tenderly)
Romanticism in Music
A new interest in folklore and a rising tide of nationalism inspires Romantic composers to use folk songs and dances from their native lands and foreign lands.
Romantic poets and artists rebelled against the conventional concerns of their Classical predecessors and were drawn instead to the fanciful, the picturesque, and the passionate.
Victor Hugo -
Emily Brontes -
Nathaniel Hawthorne -
The Scarlet Letter
Edgar Allen Poe -
redemption, jealousy, vengeance, guilt, wonder, fantasy
Above all, 19th century composers tried to make their instruments "sing". Romantic melodies are extremely lyrical, giving it an immediate appeal.
Composers are writing less works, but longer works.
Haydn - more than 100 symphonies
Mozart - more than 40
Schubert, Dvorak - 9 each
Schumann, Brahms - 4 each
Musicians and composers are now fully supported by the new middle-class audience, with a rise in the concert hall performance.
Women in Music
Although composition is still widely male-dominated, women broke away from stereotypes to become successful composers.
Among them are Fanny Mendelssohn and Clara Schumann.
The Romantic period was a time of experimentation and challenge for both men and women. Artists across the board rejected the role of "artistic servant," wrote and created what pleased them, and dared the public to follow them- a public that was yearning for new sensations.
With your partner, create answers for the following questions on a half sheet of paper. Practice using complete sentences! Each partner should write something.
1. What are the principal ideas of Romanticism?
2. How did the industrial revolution affect the development of Romantic music?
3. Are you looking forward to studying this new type of music? Why or why not?
Typical Romantic song structures:
a song in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza, or strophe, of the poem
- proceeds from beginning to end, without repetitions of whole sections
-born outside Vienna, Austria
-wrote his song
as a teenager
-wrote more than 600 Lieder, 9 symphonies, chamber music, piano sonatas, 7 Masses,
choral music and operas
Schubert's music marks the junction of the Classical and Romantic eras.
His symphonies and chamber music are classical in their clear forms. In his short piano works, he makes the instrument sing,
a central element of the Romantic spirit.
"When I wished to sing of love, it turned into sorrow. And when I wished to sing of sorrow, it was transformed for me into love."
Among the great Romantic masters of this form of art song are Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and Johannes Brahms.
Female composers who contributed to the genre include Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel and Clara Schumann.
Some composers wrote groups of Lieder that were connected by the same story or theme, known as a
What type of song is
, by Schubert?
-Born in Germany
-Studied law first, before he realized his love for music
-Injury to hand prevented him from being a performer (piano)
-Married gifted pianist and composer Clara Wieck
-Heard noises in his head which led to a breakdown where he threw himself into the Rhine River
-This forced Clara to place him in an insane asylum, where he developed dementia and died a few years later
Schumann's Song Cycle:
A Poet's Love
Robert Schumann wrote:
-more than 100 Lieder
-much chamber music
Schumann wrote his great song cycle at lightening-fast speed
-For the lyrics, he chose 16 poems by Heinrich Heine
-The songs tell no story but instead follow a psychological progression that spirals downward from the freshness of love through a growing disappointment to complete despair
Die alten, bösen Lieder (Heine no 65)
Romantic Piano Music
-The piano rises in popularity in Europe and America and becomes a part of the home and salon
Four-hand piano music
: a chamber music form for two performers at one piano or occasionally at two
-Piano manufacturing moved from the craft shop to a factory
-1867, at the Paris Exhibition, an American manufacturer named
took the top award
Why might the piano be more popular than string or wind instruments?
The Short Lyric Piano Piece
Composers adopted new, fanciful terms for their short piano songs:
"impromptu" (on the spur of the moment)
"nocturne" (a night piece)
^all suggest free, improvisational forms.
Some composers favored dance music:
Mazurka in B-flat minor
Op. 24, No. 4
Frédéric François Chopin
-born to a French father, Polish mother
-grew up in Warsaw, Poland, but left for Paris at age 22
-knew musicians Liszt and Berlioz, as well as many famous writers and poets
-through Liszt, Chopin met Aurore Dudevant, known to the world as novelist George Sand
-Chopin (28) and Sand (34) spent about 8 years together, and their relationship ran its course from love to conflict, jealousy, and hostility, eventually parting in bitterness
-died of tuberculosis in Paris, age 39
"My heart, where have I wasted it?"
"There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved."
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
-born in Hungary, studied in Paris
-one of the greatest pianists -and showmen- of his day
-never married, had many failed relationships
-had 3 children with novelist Countess Marie d'Agoult (pen name-Daniel Stern)
-Later, a Russian princess and wife of a nobleman to the czar, fell in love with Liszt during a concert tour of Russia. She left her husband to be with him.
-created a new genre, the
, a one-movement orchestral work with a literary or pictorial program
The Little Bell (La campanella)
-Like Chopin, Liszt is drawn to the
etude: study piece in which the composer confronts a particular technical problem
Liszt, inspired by the virtuosic violin playing of
, wrote 6 technical pieces called
Transcendental Etudes after Paganini
The third etude is marked by the repeated sound of a "bell", the extremely high note, which is a difficulty for the hand to play
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847)
-raised in Berlin
-close relationship with younger brother, Felix
-was actively discouraged from pursuing music
by her father and was told to focus on being a housewife
-married an artist and had a son
-played and performed on piano and held concerts
-traveled to Italy and wrote
The Year (Das Jahr)
for piano, a musical diary of her trip in 12 character pieces (one for each month)
-died of a stroke, and her brother died six months later of a series of strokes
September: At the River
Music in 19th Century America
-largely imported from Europe
-settlers brought devotional psalms, spirituals and folk melodies
-because of musical illiteracy, music was printed in
Stephen Foster (1826-1864)
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
-grew up outside Pittsburgh
-first American songwriter
-his songs are better known than he is
Louis Gottschalk (1829-1869)
-in New Orleans, he grew up hearing ethnically diverse music
-loved Afro-Caribbean folk music
-child prodigy on the piano
-studied in Paris and played for Chopin and Berlioz
-eventually returned to America to perform for the Northern army in 1861 (Civil War)
-known to coordinate "monster concerts"
-died of malaria
Romantic Program Music
What's the difference between program music and absolute music?
There are four main types of program music:
1. Concert overture
2. Incidental music (to a play)
3. Program symphony (a multi-movement work)
4. Symphonic poem (a one-movement work)
Many operatic overtures became so popular as separate concert pieces which, in turn, led the way to a new type of overture not associated with an opera:
a single-movement concert piece for orchestra based on a literary idea,
such as Tchaikovsky's
Romeo and Juliet.
Incidental music usually consists an overture and a series of pieces performed between acts of a play and during important scenes.
Mendelssohn's music for Shakespeare's
A Midsummer Night's Dream
The passion for program music was so strong that it invaded even the most revered form of absolute music, the symphony.
, a multimovement orchestral work came into being.
Ex. Berlioz -
-requires over 90 instruments
-5 movements (instead of 4)
-Story of an artist gifted with a lively imagination who has poisoned himself with opium in the depths of despair because of hopeless love.
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
-born in France
-father was a physician and wanted Hector to follow in his footsteps
-huge fan of Beethoven
-fell in love with Harriet Smithson, an actress
-most of his works are inspired by literature
-known for expanding the size of the orchestra and changing the sound
Lastly, Franz Liszt created the
-Program music for orchestra
-Has contrasting sections to develop a poetic idea, suggest a scene, or create a mood
-It differs from the concert overture, which usually retains one of the traditional Classical forms, by having a
much freer structure
-Can also be called a
Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun"
Incidental music to a play
In the Hall of the Mountain King
"The practice of music is... a great part of my inner self. To me, it is the very air I breathe."
- Clara Schumann
-studied piano from age 5
-Friedrich Wieck, her father and teacher, strongly objected to her marrying Robert Schumann
-she had a very difficult life, losing children to illness and her own husband to insanity
Johannes Brahms was a devoted friend and helped her through her hardships. He even watched her kids while she played concerts.
-from a family of intellectuals
-so close with his sister that she published some works under his name
-worshipped Bach, Mozart and Beethoven
-pianist, conductor, educator, organizer of music festivals
-traveled extensively and wrote pieces about the places he visited
-born in Hamburg, Germany
-student of Robert Schumann
-loved composing absolute Romantic music in a Classical style
-eventually settled in Vienna and was buried next to Beethoven and Schubert when he died
-his four symphonies are famous, as well as his chamber music
-born in Bohemia (part of Czech Republic now)
-encouraged by Brahms
-invited to be the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York
-spent 3 years in America, then returned to his homeland (Prague)
-famous for his melodies and folk tunes
Symphony #9 (New World Symphony)
National Schools of Romantic Opera
As one of the most important and best-loved theatrical genres of the nineteenth century, opera fostered different national styles in three European countries known for their music- Italy, Germany, and France. We will hear a masterpiece representing each national operatic style.
Why might opera be an extremely important genre for women?
Giuseppe Verdi and Italian Opera
- characterized by elaborate melodies and pure tone
-Verdi's favorite literary source was Shakespeare
-wrote 28 operas
Rigoletto, Act III
Richard Wagner and German Opera
Wagner is the greatest figure in German Romantic opera.
He created the
, a genre that attempted to integrate theater and music and did away with the concept of separate arias, duets, ensembles, and choruses.
This genre features "endless melodies", more melodious than traditional recitative, but more flexible and free than the traditional aria.
Wagner and German Opera
-composed 13 operas (music dramas)
-married Liszt's daughter, Cosima
Ring of the Nibelung
was inspiration for J. R. R. Tolkien's
Lord of the Rings
Georges Bizet and Exoticism in French Opera
-Born and raised in Paris
-first person to use saxophone in the orchestra
, a famous opera
Late Romantic and Post-Romantic Music
Choral music grew in popularity during the Romantic era, and favored genres include
(unaccompanied secular songs in three or four parts), the
, and the
is a work more appropriate for the
than a liturgical work for the church.
In a funeral Mass, the
is a prayer recited over the coffin, asking mercy upon the deceased at the Last Judgement.
Tchaikovsky and the Ballet
The Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
-born in Russia
-employed by the Russian government as a composer, he felt pressure to marry a woman even though he was gay
-sensitive by nature and suffered from depression
-rose to fame quickly
-Works: 8 operas, 3 ballets (including The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and Sleeping Beauty), 7 symphonies, concertos, etc...
-Was forced to write his 5th and 6th symphonies... willingly drank water infected with cholera before the premiere of his 6th symphony ("Pathetic Symphony")
Ballet in the Romantic Era
Ballet has been part of European culture for centuries, starting in the Renaissance.
The 18th century in particular saw the rise of
as an independent
Puccini and Verismo Opera
Giacomo Puccini was the main voice among a group of opera composers associated with a movement known as
Instead of choosing historical or mythological themes, they picked subjects from everyday life and treated them in down-to-earth fashion.
The movement was short-lived.
The Post-Romantic Voice of Gustav Mahler
-Bohemian (now Czech Republic)
-his compositions were not fully appreciated until after his death
-known for his vast dynamics and expressive range
-wrote a song cycle of 6 songs for two male voices and orchestra, called
Song of the Earth,
based on Chinese melodies
"In The Lovely Month of May"
Comparing Styles - Romantic to 20th Century
Comparing Styles - Romantic to 20th Century
Jeu de vagues
The Rite of Spring
, Part 1
What is it? Define it.
Who invented it? (We may not know this.)
Which composers used this form or composed this type of work?
What are some famous examples? Name at least 1, but 2-3 if possible.
Review: Program music genres
How many movements does it have?
What is it based on?
What is the structure like?
What's a famous example?
Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 7