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Transcript of Music History
A Brief History of Music
The Medieval Period
The Renaissance Period
The Bubonic Plague
The Bubonic Plague, flooding, and famine swept through Europe. Cooler weather reduced agricultural production leading to a decline in the economy.
The Baroque Period
The Classical Period
The Romantic Period
The 20th Century
Most music was written for the Catholic Church. The words were in Latin and always followed the same order. This is called the "Ordinary of the Mass": Kyrie, Gloria, Alleluia, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei.
Music for Catholic worship services
Monks wrote down their music to remember it.
Map of Europe
Renaissance means "re-birth." The Renaissance Period was an Age of Discovery. This period stimulated many developments in science, music, art, and literature.
"Il est bel et bon," is a nonsense song about chickens clucking.
Artistic Expression: Madrigals
What do you think Polyphony means?
Other Renaissance Discoveries
Galileo performs many experiments
Christopher Columbus sails to America in 1492
Leonardo da Vinci discovers many things about human anatomy
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
The School of Athens by Raphael
The Creation of Adam by Michaelangelo
People began creating more instruments during the Renaissance. The violin, clavichord, and harpsichord were invented during this period. The most common household instrument was the lute.
by Macy L. Oliver
Cassidy Elementary School
Instruments were limited during the Medieval Period. Some instruments include the lute, recorder, and bagpipe.
Harpsichord is the Piano's ancestor
"Ring Around the Rosie" was written about the Bubonic Plague.
What is Baroque?
Other Important Genres
Baroque means many decorations. Clothing, artwork, and music were highly "ornamented."
King Louis XIV from France
St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, Italy
Symbolism is important!
The pianoforte was invented in Florence, Italy in 1700.
Music for Catholic and Protestant worship services
Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah
George Frideric Handel
Toccata and Fugue in D Minor
Johann Sebastian Bach
Most fugues open with a main theme, called the subject. A fugue typically has three sections: the exposition, development, and recapitulation.
Johann Sebastian Bach was a master of the Fugue. Well, he was a master of all things, really.
The invention of Opera
The Four Seasons: Movement 1 "La Primavera"
The Sonata, which means to be "played," not "sung."
The invention of Ballet
An intellectual movement whose central themes included reason, nature, and progress. The pursuit of learning created a growing interest in philosophy, science, literature, and art.
Composers, artists, and architects in the Classical Period were inspired by Ancient Greece.
The White House, United States of America
The Parthenon in Athens, Greece
Declaration of Independence, 1776
The Magic Flute by Mozart
Mozart was a child prodigy. He had perfect pitch at age three, at age five he was an accomplished harpsichord player, and by age seven he could harmonize melodies on the first hearing. In his lifetime he wrote nearly 600 compositions including 20 operas, 17 masses, 55 symphonies, 23 piano concertos, 26 string quartets, and more. Mozart composed his first symphony before his ninth birthday. He finished his first opera at age twelve. His father took his children on a tour of Europe, where Wolfgang performed in aristocratic homes. These musical tours allowed Wolfgang to become an expert in every style of music throughout Europe.
Artistic Expression: Opera
Music for Catholic and Protestant worship services.
The Heavens are Telling from The Creation by Joseph Haydn
Late Classical Period
The French Revolution
The Fall of the Bastille, July 14, 1789
But, think that for six years now I have been hopelessly afflicted, made worse by senseless physicians, from year to year deceived with hopes of improvement, finally compelled to face the prospect of a lasting malady (whose cure will take years or, perhaps, be impossible). Though born with a fiery, active temperament, even susceptible to the diversions of society, I was soon compelled to isolate myself, to live life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it was impossible for me to say to people, "Speak louder, shout, for I am deaf." Ah, how could I possibly admit an infirmity in the one sense which ought to be more perfect in me than others, a sense which I once possessed in the highest perfection, a perfection such as few in my profession enjoy or ever have enjoyed. - Oh I cannot do it; therefore forgive me when you see me draw back when I would have gladly mingled with you. My misfortune is doubly painful to me because I am bound to be misunderstood; for me there can be no relaxation with my fellow men, no refined conversations, no mutual exchange of ideas. I must live almost alone, like one who has been banished; I can mix with society only as much as true necessity demands. If I approach near to people a hot terror seizes upon me, and I fear being exposed to the danger that my condition might be noticed.
Ludwig van Beethoven
October 6, 1802
Pathetique Sonata Op. 13 by Beethoven
Music for orchestra became very important during the eighteenth century as public and private concerts became more popular.
Portrait of W.A. Mozart with his father and sister, Nannerl
Haydn was a teacher as well as a composer. He influenced many great musicians such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Beethoven's music was full of self-expression. He composed as inspiration struck him, without answering to an employer. Beethoven changed everyone's ideas of what a composer is and does.
The new era of music which focused on melody, emotion, novelty, and individuality is known as the Romantic Period. The phrase comes from the medieval meaning of romance, as something fantastic, legendary, or imaginary.
Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France
Raft of Medusa by Theodore Gericault
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair."
A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens
Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, 4th Movement
Piano Sonata No. 14 in C Sharp Minor, "Moonlight Sonata "
New Genres Develop
Der Hirt auf dem Felsen
by Franz Schubert
Papillons (Butterflies) Op. 2
by Robert Schumann
a fusion of music and poetry
for voice and piano
for the piano virtuoso
An elaborate warm-up
Grande Etude Op. 49
No. 1 by Bazzini
Symphonies shaped around a series of emotions to tell a story.
Music for Catholic and Protestant worship services
How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place from Ein deutsches Requiem
by Johannes Brahms
Artistic Expression: Opera
The nineteenth century is considered the Golden Age of Opera.
The Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walkure by Richard Wagner
A State-of-the-Art Production:
Richard Wagner's, The Ring Cycle, was the first of it's kind. It is a series of four operas with a continuing storyline. From beginning to end, The Ring Cycle is about 19 hours of music! The premier was a week-long event in which one opera was performed each evening. A special opera house, called The Bayreuth Festival Theatre, was built for the premier of The Ring Cycle. To this day, the theatre hosts a Ring Cycle Festival every summer!
The Ring Cycle plot:
A gnome named Alberich steals gold from the river Rhine and makes it into a gold ring. The ring gives its' owner limitless power. Watan, the ruler of the gods, tricks Alberich into giving him the ring. When Alberich finds out what has happened, he puts a curse on it. Over the course of four operas, the curse is fulfilled and Watan's empire comes to a fiery end!
Nationalism is a main theme in 19th century Opera.
The Japanese Footbridge, Claude Monet
Claire de Lune by Claude Debussy
Music and art that evokes emotion through colorful harmony and instrumental timbre.
Three Musicians, Picasso
Cubism was a movement in which perspective from a single viewpoint was abandoned.
Piano Suite, Op. 25 by Shoenberg
Some composers felt that music had become too advanced for the general audience.
Serial music uses the Twelve-Tone Method in which music becomes more of a mathematical equation than art.
American Musical Theatre
"Johnny One Note," from Babes in Arms, 1937
"I Could Have Danced All Night," from My Fair Lady, 1964
"The Best Things Happen While You're Dancing," from White Christmas, 1954
"I Want to Hold Your Hand," by The Beatles
"Defying Gravity" from Wicked
"Wake Me Up Before You Go, Go" by Wham!
"Bye Bye Bye" by 'N Sync
"The Prince of Bel Air" by Will Smith
A movement in which music was reduced to repetitive patterns of sound. Minimalist composers ask the question, "Where does music end and sound begin?"
4'33" by John Cage
Main Theme from Star Wars
Hedwig's Theme from Harry Potter
Main Theme from Jurassic Park