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Separation of a Mixture Lab

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Valerie Henderson

on 16 January 2016

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Transcript of Separation of a Mixture Lab

Making your mixture
Separation of a Mixture Lab
1. Mass between 3-5g of Na CO and dissolve it in about 30mL of H O
Start your procedure...
What are the separation techniques you learned?
Write the rest of the procedure...
What are the separation techniques you learned?
Need a little more help?
How do they make the gas you put in your car?
How do they make milk with different % fat?
How do they make flour?
calcium chloride and sodium carbonate
CaCl + Na CO
2
2
3
NaCl
+
CaCO
3
salt
chalk
2
3
2
2. Mass betwen 3-5 g CaCl and dissolve it in about 30 mL of H O in a 100mL beaker.
in a 100mL beaker
2
2
3. Combine the 2 solutions. Stir well with a stir rod and record your observations.
Now what?...
Here's the video again if you need to refresh:
filtration
evaporation
centrifugation (centrifuge)
chromatography
Which can we use?
Which can you evaporate the water off of?
salt or chalk?
How is this actually used in the real world?
oil
milk
flour
Crude oil is a mixture. It is separated by boiling points. As molecular mass increases, so does boiling point.
Fractional distillation
As each of the substances of the oil mixtures boils, it becomes a gas.

The hot gases rise through a column that cools the gases.

The gases cool (become liquid) at different temperatures.

The liquids settle at different levels of the column. The liquid collected at each level is called a fraction.
Fractional Distillation Column
Milk is a mixture.
protein, fat, water sugar, vitamins & calcium
instead of 100 mL beaker, use 150mL beaker
Separation of a Mixture
-Helpful Tips
mass everything!
Make a data table
Write down any changes, additions or extra descriptions to procedure while completing lab.
How to use an analytical balance:
1. Plug it in.
2. Press the On button
3. Once the screen is not showing # / symbols, press TARE (or zero).
4. Now place your mass boat or beaker, flask, etc on balance.
5. Wait for the numbers to stop fluctuating. (the numbers fluctuate due to air movement in the room. You may make a mini-textbook shelter to stop the wind.
Never place raw chemicals on a balance! Place chemicals in a mass (weigh) boat or beaker or flask, or some other vessel and mass the vessel.
2 methods of getting the mass of just the chemicals.
Zeroing the balance with the vessel on it.
Massing the empty vessel and subtracting it from the mass of the vessel with the chemicals in it.
Repeat steps 1-5, except in step 3, place the EMPTY vessel on the balance and then press zero.
mass vessel w/ chemicals in it
- mass empty vessel
mass of chemicals
Required Data analysis:
Percent error:
In this case:
Theoretical is the mass of the reactants added together you started with.
Conservation of Mass:
Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
How would you expect this to function for your separation of a mixture lab?
Hint:
Should the mass of your recatants and products be the same or different?
ie. Should you have more or less than when you staarted?
Where can I find the verification of peer review & integration of feedback form?
The actual is the mass of your two products.
My website:
vhendersoncampbellchemistry.weebly.com
General Course Documents
Scroll to the bottom of the General Course Documents page and it is in the lab report help
center.
What was the big idea here?
Test your ability to separate a mixture. That means that the mass of your reactants should equal the mass of your products. This is because of the law of conservation of mass.
Why is this experiment relevant?
It's not important to have an exact amount. What is important is that you record the mass from the balance accurately and precisley.
Mixtures:
A mixture contains at least 2 different types of particles that are not chemically bonded to each other.
A mixture can be homogenous or hetergenous
heterogenous
homogenous
Mixtures can be separated into pure substances using
physical separation
methods because the different types of particles in a mixture are not chemically bonded to each other.
Types of physical separation methods:
Absorption
Capillary Action
Centrifugation
Chromatography
Decantation
Filtration
Distillation or Fractional Distillation
Drying and Evaporation
Electrophoresis
Magnetic Separation
Stripping
Sublimation
A few separation techniques you might have learned or heard of in biology:
electrophoresis
Takes pieces of DNA that have been cut up into fragments and run them through agar using electric current. Smaller pieces move faster so the smaller DNA pieces will move farther and heavier pieces will not move as far.
This method separates DNA fragments by size.
Can be used to find particular genes or for DNA fingerprints (for forensics, paternity testing, or to analyze evolutionary relationships)
Absorption
The small intestine uses this method to absorb nutrients from the food that passes through it.
As food moves through the small intestine, the nutrients are absorbed and the waste is left to continue its path out of the body.
Capillary Action
The ability of liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assitance of and in opposition to external forces such as gravity.
This movement of water is due to the forces: adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension
Adhesion is the ability of water molecules to stick to each other. This is why water has a high surface tension (surface tension means it is hard to break through the water's surface (that's why it hurts when you belly flop). Cohesion is the property of water molecules to stick to other substances (that's how paper towels absorb water)
Plants & trees use capillary action to bring water and nutrients from their roots in the soil up to their highest branches.
Your tiniest blood vessels are called capillaries. Blood is mostly water and capillary action assists the pumping action of your heart to help keep blood moving in your blood vessels.
Centrifugation
This separates heavy particles from lighter particles.
The mixture is spun quickly in circles. The centripetal forces pushes the heavier particles to the bottom. The heavier particles sinking to the bottom is called sedimentation.
This process is used to separate two immiscible substances.
immiscible - they cannot be mixed
example: oil and water
Chromatography
literally means color writing
The greek words:
chroma
means color
graphe
means writing
separates pigments (pigments are what give things color)
example: If you spill water on a drawing made with black marker. You will see streaks of different colors appear.
Police and forensics experts use this technique to identify chemicals and drugs as well as blood. The FDA uses this technique to test to make sure companies are making safe food.
Separation Techniques commonly used in general chemistry:
filtration
decantation
Evaporation
Drying
Magnetic Separation
Filtration:
This technique separates particles by size.
Smaller particles pass through the filter and larger particles are left on top of the filter.
In lab, filtration is done using filter paper placed inside a funnel.
Here, just watch this video:
Decantation
To decant means to pour off.
This separates liquids from solids.
To decant something, you pour the liquid out, leaving behind a wet solid.
Evaporation
This technique separates solids from liquids.
To evaporate the liquid from the solid, leave the mixture exposed to the air until the solid is dry, indicating there is no liquid present.
This technique is often used after filtering a mixture. By leaving the wet filter paper with the larger solid particles on it out overnight, the liquid will evaporate away, leaving only the solid.
Then, the mass of the solid can be determined.
It's important to note that the solid will be on the filter paper and so the mass of the filter paper would need to have been recorded before it was used as a filter.
Why does the mass of the filter paper need to be measured before it is used?
When the filter paper is dry with the solid on it, you must place the filter paper with the solid on it on the balance. The solid itself cannt be placed directly onto the balance.
To determine the mass of the solid, think about what masss you have...
You have two masses:
mass of filter paper with solid
mass of filter paper
How is drying different from evaporation?
Evaporation is the changing of phase of liquid water to gaseous water.
Drying is typically used to describe the removal of water from a substance.
Methods of drying without using evaporation:
using an absorbant
example: saving your phone from water damage by putting it in rice
using an adsorbent
using a substance that likes to bind with water
freeze drying (sublimation)
Sublimation is the process of changing a solid to a gas without going through the liquid phase.
This is used to freeze dry foods.
Food is frozen and then sublimation is used to change the ice crystals trapped in the food into a gas which is removed. Now there isn't water in the food.
Magnetic Separation:
Substances which are magnetic can be separated from non-magnetic substances using a magnet.
Examples of substances which are magnetic:
iron
nickel
cobalt
some alloys of rare earth metals
rare earth metals:
some in group 3, lanthanides, and actindes
found in the earth's crust and are vital to many modern technologies.
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