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Nuclear Bombs

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on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Bombs

An Introduction
Nuclear Bombs
How It Works...
The Science Behind the Technology
Science of Nuclear Bombs
History timeline of how the science behind the nuclear bomb was discovered by numerous scientists.
How Nuclear Technology Devastated the World
Environmental Impacts
radiation from a nuclear explosion results in
toxic crops, trees, plants and animals
in the area
radiation and wreckage from the explosion would enter ecosystems, water, and impact animal life
results in
changes of global temperatures
affects the ability of crops to thrive in the area
the smoke (lots) from the nuclear bomb would
pollute the atmosphere
and may travel to different areas of the world
the particles would absorb the sunlight, preventing it from reaching the earth's atmosphere, resulting in rapid cooling of the surface of the earth
adds to the effects of
global warming
which is a threat that becomes greater each year
Societal Impacts
the material to create such a weapon

billions of dollars
constructing, maintaining and protecting this weapon may cause a society to go in debt
This money could be spent in a better way for example it can be spent of providing health care, education, or other public services
can cause
economical destruction
and loss of political leadership
the society itself is in danger, there is a
huge risk in human health
and safety when creating a nuclear bomb
numerous deaths
due to
radiation sickness
(there is no medical treatment)
leads to
health defects

an explosive device that creates a destruction force from nuclear reaction
combination of fission and fusion
it releases huge amounts of energy
have the ability to tear down and destroy cities in a matter of minutes, leaving nothing but rubble
a weapon known to cause mass destruction
causes numerous health defects and problems in new generations

The science behind nuclear bombs all begins with an
- The nuclei of the atom emits particles that are referred as
- A nucleus that emits radiation is radioactive and the process of emitting particles is known radioactive decay
Immediate Effects
cause blast damage
thermal radiation
causes burning organic materials
would result in additional fires
an explosion would cause
immediate burns and injuries
in people and animals

Nuclear Fallout

radioactive particles fall to the earth's surface after a nuclear explosion has occurred
• Early fallout (occurs within 24 hours of the blast)
• Delayed Fallout (occurs days, months, or years after the explosion)

Effects on Wildlife
• A nuclear explosion
affects animals + humans similarly
Genetic disorder
Reproductive complications
Injuries and burns
Exposure to radiation causes other diseases
Impacts Large Bodies of Water
• Sea salt
with many chemicals which creates radioactive fish
• e.g., after world war the Japanese fishing boats caught fish that were too contaminated for human consumption
Enrico Fermi
Italian physicist Enrico Fermi in the 1930s, demonstrated that elements exposed to neutron outbreak could be transformed into new elements.
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman
After Fermi's discovery, German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman bombarded uranium with neutrons, which produced a radioactive barium isotope.
One step closer
A team of scientists working at Columbia University in New York City confirmed the hypothesis by Bohr and Wheeler -- the isotope uranium-235, or U-235, was responsible for nuclear fission.

In 1941, scientists at the University of California at Berkeley discovered another element -- element 94 -- that might offer potential as a nuclear fuel. They named the element plutonium. Eventually, they established plutonium's fission characteristics and identified a second possible fuel for nuclear weapons.

Fusion Bombs:
Fission Bombs (Atomic Bombs)
This resulted in the discovery of slow neutrons, as well as new elements not represented on the periodic table.
So, in conclusion low-speed neutrons caused the uranium nucleus to fission, or break apart, into two smaller pieces.
Neils Bohr and John Wheeler
At Princeton University, Niels Bohr worked with John Wheeler to develop a hypothetical model of the fission process. They speculated that it was the uranium isotope uranium-235, not uranium-238, undergoing fission.
Could the free neutrons created in fission start a chain reaction that would release an enormous amount of energy?
If so, it might be possible to build a weapon of unimagined power.
Alpha decay:
A nucleus ejects two protons and two neutrons bound together, known as an alpha particle.
Beta decay:
A neutron becomes a proton, an electron and an a neutrino. The ejected electron is a beta particle.
Spontaneous fission:
A nucleus splits into two pieces. In the process, it can eject neutrons, which can become neutron rays. When the nucleus emits electromagnetic energy this is called gamma ray.
Gamma rays are the only type of nuclear radiation that comes from energy instead of fast-moving particles.
Types of Radioactive Decay
involves fission and fusion
nuclear bombs involve the forces, strong and weak, that hold the nucleus of an atom together

NUCLEAR FISSION :- scientists take the nucleus of
an atom and split it into two
smaller fragments with a neutron.
NUCLEAR FUSION :- which is the process where the sun produces energy; involves bringing together
two smaller atoms to form a larger one
In both nuclear fusion and nuclear fission large amounts of heat and radiation are given off.
Ways nuclear energy is
emitted from an atom
• Heat
• Pressure changes
• Impact of debris
• Tertiary Effects
• Radiation
• Exposure of smoke
• Blasts the results into fires

Destruction of the Environment
In conclusion...
Do weapons and technology with such powerful and devastating destruction really have a place in the world and should they really continue to be used despite these destructive and heavy consequences?
This results in a large amount of energy and heat being released. The neutrons also spread out and go towards other uranium atoms. This continues on and on, like a domino effect. Fission bombs are mainly known an Atomic Bombs
Fission is happens when a neutron is fired at a uranium atom

“little boy”


“fat man”

were atomic bombs. Little boy had 56kg of Uranium however, only 780 grams was exploded. This happens because most of the fuel in a bomb does not fission, by the time it does the bomb explodes.
when two atoms are put together rather than split.
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

August 6, 1945, during World War II USA attacked Japan, after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
thousands of innocent Japanese civilians were killed during this attack
as a result, USA joined the war
MANHATTAN PROJECT: USA wanted revenge and wanted the Japanese to surrender, causing them to use nuclear technology against the Japanese.
BOMBING OF HIROSHIMA: 90% of the city was destroyed; 80,000 people were killed; thousands later died of radiation exposure
NAGASAKI: 3 days later, atomic bomb attack, killed approx. 40,000 people
eventually, over 250,000 people died from the causes of burns, radiation, and other injuries
Nuclear Fusion:
Sun uses to generate energy
- Nuclear fusion bombs are prompted by an explosion of a nuclear fusion. This is why Nuclear Fusion bombs are more powerful than just a Nuclear Fission bomb.

are the main ingredients for the fuel of the Nuclear Fission bomb.
Most fusion bombs use Deuterium and Tritium. Which is why they are often called Hydrogen Bombs
Fusion bombs are much more powerful than fission bombs.
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