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Transcript of Rural Communities
Ceit -02-1001E Communities can be classified according to FUNCTION and SPECIALIZATION. Some sociologist have related the RURAL community to familistic GEMEINSCHAFT and the URBAN community to the contractual GESSELCHAFT.
Among the indices used by sociologist to show rural-urban differences are occupations, size, and density of population, homogeneity or heterogeneity of culture, social differentiation and stratification, social mobility, type of social interaction and solidarity. Rural Culture and Social Structure Rural communities are not alike, but they have some common features-small, and people are engaged in agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, food gathering, and cottage industries. The residents are referred as PEASANTS- rural folks who produce their own food for subsistence and sell their surplus in the towns and cities. They are the source of labor and goods for the landlords and officials of the state. PEASANTRY is associated with commercialization. Peasants differ from farmers in industrialized societies who rely upon the market to exchange crops for almost all the goods and services they need (Ember and Ember, 1977) Rural Communities in the Philippines The Philippines is divided into 16 administrative regions, 79 provinces, 113 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 41,994 barangays. As of 2000, 52.4% lived in the rural and 47.6% in the urban.
The Philippines is "a land of barrios" (Gelia Castillo, 1979) and these barrios are considered the "backbone of the nation" because they provide urban areas with food and raw materials for industry. Spatial Patterns of Philippine Communities Nucleated type
shown in the poblacion with the agglomated barrios.
consists of a cluster of sitios where houses are dispersed along the rivers or in the middle of the field. The Rural Family The Family is the basic social unit of the society and an important agency. The Family is bilateral with close ties usually maintained with both sides of the family. The couple can choose where to reside after marriage. Hence, in terms of residence the family is either biliocal or neolocal.
Familistic relations and there is a strong dependence on the family. KIN relationship is characterized by traditional obligations and expectations. Traditional Practices 1. Serenading-a traditional practice to court a girl that is gradually disappearing.
2. Chaperoning- still observed, as CHASTITY is a trait highly valued among unmarried women.
3. Dowry (bigay-kaya)- may consist of money, a piece of land, or a gift by the man to the girl’s parents. Rural Economy The 2000 Philippine Census counts the total population at 88,574,614. CALABARZON, NCR, AND CENTRAL LUZON COMPRISE MORE THAN ONE-THIRD OF TOTAL POPULATION By region, Calabarzon (Region IV-A) had the largest population with 11.74 million, followed by the National Capital Region (NCR) with 11.55 million, and Central Luzon (Region III) with 9.72 million. The combined population of these three regions comprised more than one-third (37.3 percent) of the Philippine population. TWELVE REGIONS HAVE GROWTH RATES LOWER THAN THE NATIONAL FIGURE Twelve of the country's 17 administrative regions have growth rates lower than the national figure. The other five regions had higher growth rates, namely, NCR (2.11%), Region III (2.36%), Region IV-A (3.21%), Region XII (2.41%), and ARMM (5.46%). CAVITE'S 2.86 MILLION POPULATION TOPS OTHER PROVINCES Among provinces, Cavite had the largest population with 2.86 million. Bulacan was second with 2.83 million, and Pangasinan came in third, with 2.65 million.
Five other provinces surpassed the two million mark: Laguna (2.47 million persons); Cebu, excluding its three highly urbanized cities - Cebu City, Lapu-lapu City, and Mandaue City (2.44 million persons); Negros Occidental, excluding Bacolod City (2.37 million persons); Rizal (2.28 million persons); and Batangas (2.25 million persons)
On the other hand, three provinces reportedly had less than 100 thousand population, namely, Batanes (16 thousand persons); Camiguin (81 thousand persons); and Siquijor (88 thousand persons). FOUR HIGHLY URBANIZED CITIES (HUCS) Record of morethan one million population of the Millionaires Club. Three of such HUCs were in the NCR: Quezon City (2.68 million), Manila (1.66 million), and Caloocan City (1.38 million). The other HUC which qualified for the Millionaires Club was Davao City Of the 32 highly urbanized cities (HUCs), only four had qualified for t with a population of 1.36 million.
*The FARMERS are the poorest in the country, and there is a large economic gap between the farmers and non-farmers. Rural Cooperatives Success stories of cooperatives ( Bautista,1992 )Factors for successful cooperative:
1. Business orientation
cooperatives which are more oriented towards the business side of their activities tend to become more successful
2. Diversification in activities
cooperatives which are more diversified tend to be more success ful than those with limited activities.
3. Leadershipa competent leader
is one who is dynamic and charismatic
4. Sufficient internally generated funds
this allows the cooperative to function on a long0term and sustainable basis
5. Correct policy environment
this includes credit assistance from the government and economic policies conductive for the development of economic activities Rural Government the barangay, or Balangay as it was originally called, has its roots in pre-spanish times. the barangay later called barrio, was the basic political unit during the spanish period. Rola (1991) observed that the barangay chairperson and councilors, landowners, or agency representatives. People were merely consulted, or sometimes just informed of decisions made. "Video clip for Rural/Urban Communities to understand further" Rural Education Most people in the rural areas dream that their children will achieve a college education, as they believe that a college degree is the means for a better social status and life. It is a sad commentary that education in the rural areas cannot guarantee this. In 1969, barangay high schools were instituted to provide high school education for all. the programs aimed to solve the problem of dropouts due to distance between school and home. thus, the barangay council was authorizeed to organize a low cost secondary school whenever atleast 40 students in the barrio are available to constitute a class. Rural Religion Majority of the people in rural areas are Roman Catholic but people of other religions concentration in some regions. in the north, a large number adhere to the Aglipayan religin and, In the South, to the Islam faith.
In some places, the church has emarked on social action and the promotion of rural development. Pacho and Mariano (1975). cite the case of abra diocese which has cooperated with the government in putting up rural projects such as drinking water and irrigation systems, rice and corn mills, and suspension bridge.
to the rural folks, religion is a means of copying with lifes problems and major crises. it also offers opportunities for socializing and engaging in social action programs. Rural Recreation and the fiesta In rural communities, liesure time consists of visiting and chatting with riends. Panguigue and other card games are common diversions for women, cock fighting and jueteng for men.
The fiesta is is a socio-religious activity which is always looked forward to by rural folks. it is an annual celebration in honor of the local patron saint. preparation for the perks up the people and breaks the humdrum life in the barrio.
Fiesta and wedding become occacions or weddingmaking as well as family reunions. Rural Change and Rural Development Community development programs were initiated in the 1950s to improve conditions for economic and social progress. in the 1960s, the focus was on production-oriented and single community programs the green revolution was launch, and masagana 99 rice production was introduced. in the 1970s, the integrated Rural Development approach was introduced, with the intentions of intergrating programs and projects in the planning implementation process. these were later followed by the modified extensions program of the Agricultural Development program for the countryside. NGOs, private, nonprofit groups, also strive to bring socio eeconomic development and service to the rural areas. despite all those, a lot still has to be done to improv the conditions of rural communities. Chapter 15