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A Farewell to Arms

A project over the book "A Farewell to Arms" by Ernest Hemingway

Michael Everett

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of A Farewell to Arms

A Farewell to Arms
Literary Analysis
Overview of the Novel
Author Information
Victoria Collins, Noah Craig, Michael Everett,
Alexa Gonzalez, Lyndsey Howarth, Thomas Peralez
Point of View
“There was a letter from my grandfather, containing family news, patriotic encouragement, a draft for two hundred dollars, and a few clippings; a dull letter from the priest at our mess, a letter from a man I knew who was flying with the French and had gotten into a wild gang and was telling about it, and a note from Rinaldi asking me how long I was going to skulk in Milano and what was all the news? He wanted me to bring him phonographic records and enclosed a list” (Hemingway 136).
“No, no,” said Rinaldi. “You
can’t do it. You can’t do it. I say you can’t do it. You’re dry and you’re empty and
there’s nothing else. There’s nothing else I tell you. Not a damned thing. I know,
when I stop working.” (Hemingway 174).
Julius Caesar
A Farewell to Arms
“'The coward dies a thousand deaths, the brave but one?'”(Hemingway 139).

Julius Caesar Quote
"'Cowards die many times before their deaths.
The valiant never taste of death but once.'"
(Shakespeare A2, S2).
Book One
Chapters I - X
"No," I said, "I was blown up while we were eating cheese" (Hemingway 63).
Book Three
Chapters XXV - XXXII
“Before I put my coat on I cut the cloth stars off my sleeves and put them in the inside pocket with my money” (Hemingway 227-228).
Ernest Hemingway's Life Span: July 21, 1899- July 2, 1961

Born in Cicero, Illinois

In high school he worked for his school newspaper, which
helped him gain his job as a newspaper journalist for The Kansas City Star.

"On the Star you were forced to learn to write a simple declarative sentence. This is useful to anyone."

He was married four times. First to Hadley Richardson from 1921–1927. Next Pauline Pfeiffer from 1927–1940. Then Martha Gellhorn from 1940–1945. Lastly Mary Welsh Hemingway from 1946-1961.

In 1918 he went overseas where he served as an ambulance driver
in the Italian army. This is like the main character in
A Farewell to Arms

On July 8, 1918 Hemingway was seriously injured in battle. Again,
similar to the main character in
A Farewell to Arms
1918, Milan
Split up into five books
Each book has its own central theme
Shows the different phases Lt. Henry goes through
• First Person (Lt. Henry)

• Hemingway was an ambulance driver during WW1

• Gives an inside perspective on the front

• Shows differences between military/civilian lifestyles

• Told in past tense
Book Four
"'No, but I know that they know you were here before as an officer and now you are here out of uniform. After this retreat, they arrest everybody'" (Hemingway 265).
Short sentences: "We think. We read. We are not peasants. We
are mechanics." (Hemingway 51). "I looked back up the road. The sergeant lay in his dirty long-sleeved underwear... It was too soft and muddy for the cars." (Hemingway 206). "I was not made to think.... No that was impossible." (Hemingway 233).

Long sentences: "Maybe she would pretend that I was her boy that was killed... we would both love each other all night in the hot night in Milan" (Hemingway 37-38).

Hemingway also uses this form of syntax in
The Sun Also Rises

Short sentences: "No one was up before noon. We ate at tables set out under the arcade. The town was full of people. We had towait for a table. After lunch we went over to the Irufla"

Long sentences: "The flags in the square hung wet from the white poles and the banners were wet and hung damp against the front of the houses, and in between the steady drizzlebthe rain came down and drove every one under the arcadesband made pools of water in the square, and the streets wet and dark and deserted; yet the fiesta kept up without any pause" (Hemingway 155).
Other Books by Ernest Hemingway

In Our Time (1925)
Big Two-Hearted River (1925)
Soldiers Home (1925)
The Sun Also Rises (1926)
The Torrents of Spring (1926)
Men Without Women (1927)
The Killers (1927)
A Farewell to Arms (1929)
Death in the Afternoon (1932)
A Clean, Well-lighted Place (1933)
Winner Take Nothing (1933)
Green Hills of Africa (1935)
The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1936)
To Have and Have Not (1937)
The Fifth Column and the First Forty Nine (1938)
For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
Across the River and Into the Trees (1950)
The Old Man and the Sea (1952)
A Moveable Feast (1964)
By-line (1967)
The Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Civil War (1969)
Islands in the Stream (1970)
The Nick Adams Stories (1972)
Complete Poems (1979)
Selected Letters (1981)
The Short Stories (1984)
Dateline: Toronto (1985)
The Dangerous Summer (1985)
The Garden of Eden (1986)
The Collected Stories (1995)
True at First Light (1999)
Hemingway on Hunting (2003)
Hemingway on War (2003)
Under Kilimanjaro (2005)
The Letters of Ernest Hemingway (2011)
Book Two
Chapters XIII - XVX
"I only wanted to for you."
"There isn't any me. I'm you. Don't make up a separate me."
"I thought girls always wanted to be married" (Hemingway 115).
A Farewell to Arms
To leave war behind
To forsake violence and destruction

Book Five
"'Sometimes I wonder about the front and about the people I know but I don't worry. I don't think about anything much.'Who do you wonder about?' 'About Rinaldi and the priest and lots of people I know. But I don't think about them much. I don't want to think about the war. I'm through with it'" (Hemingway 298).

Fun Facts
Ernest Hemingway survived through anthrax, malaria, pneumonia, dysentery, skin cancer, hepatitis, anemia, diabetes, high blood pressure, two plane crashes, a ruptured kidney, a ruptured spleen, a ruptured liver, a crushed vertebra, a fractured skull, and more.
Used direction-finding equipment, a machine gun and grenades to hunt Nazi U-Boats
He wanted to fight in World War I, but was denied due to his wretched eye sight. However, he convinced the military to make him an ambulance driver. Unfortunately, during the war he was wounded from mortar fire.
After World War II, he was accused of War Crimes by Geneva surrounding an event where Ernest lead a group of French Militia against the Nazis. He was not convicted.
The novel’s narrator and protagonist. A young American ambulance driver in the Italian army during World War I, Henry meets his military duties and is very diligent. He displays
courage in battle, but his selfless motivations undermine all sense of heroism, abstract terms for which
Henry has little patience. His life is missing true passion until he meets Catherine Barkley.
An exceptionally beautiful English nurse’s aide
who falls in love with Henry. When the novel begins to describe, Catherine’s grief for her deceased fiancé launches her headlong into a
playful, though reckless, game of seduction. Her feelings for Henry soon intensify and become
more complicated, however, and she eventually swears lifelong fidelity to him.

A surgeon in the Italian army. He can be taken as Henry’s closest friend. Mischievous, wry, and
oversexed. Although Rinaldi is a skilled doctor, his primary practice is seducing beautiful women. That
side of him shows when Henry returns to Gorizia and leads us to believe so.

A kind young man who provides spiritual guidance to the few soldiers interested in it. Often
the center of officers’ jokes, the priest responds with good-natured understanding. Through
Henry’s conversations with him regarding the war, the novel challenges abstract ideals like
glory, honor, and sacredness.
A nurse’s aide who works at the American hospital and a close friend of
Catherine. Though Helen is friendly and accepting of Henry and Rinaldi’s visits to Catherine early
in the novel, her hysterical outburst over Henry and Catherine’s “immoral” affair establishes
her as an unhappy woman who is paranoid about her friend’s safety and anxious about her own
A spry, ninety-four-year-old nobleman. The count represents a more mature version of
Henry’s character and Hemingway’s masculine ideal. He lives life to the fullest and thinks for
himself. Though the count dismisses the label “wise,” Henry clearly values his thoughts and sees
him as a sort of father figure. He is an important role model to Henry throughout the novel.
‘“Now I am depressed myself”, I said. “That’s why I never think about these things. I never think and yet when I begin to talk I say the things I have found out in my mind without thinking”’ (Hemingway 179).

‘“This war is killing me,” Rinaldi said. I am very depressed by it”’ (Hemingway 167).

“Well I would never see him now. I would never see any of them now. That life was over” (Hemingway 233).

Literary Criticism Regarding Ernest Hemingway and
A Farewell to Arms
· Some loved his straight forward dialect and diction

· Others didn’t think his craftsmanship was deserving of all the praise

· Compared to his previous book
The Sun Also Rises
A Farewell to Arms
was similar although somewhat advanced in the writing style
The novel takes place in various cities within Italy and Switzerland.
Gorizia, a small town near the Italian/Austrian border is one of them and is the place where Frederic Henry is stationed the most throughout the novel.
Milan is another important place within the novel. It is where Frederic Henry must go when he sustains his leg injury.
Stresa is a northern Italian town that borders Switzerland.
Montreux is where Catherine and Frederic Henry spend their winter.
A Farewell to Arms
“'I am the snake. I am the snake of reason.'
'You’re getting it mixed. The apple was reason.'
'No, it was the snake.' He was more cheerful." (Hemingway 170).

Relates to the Bible, Genesis and the Fall of Man.
A Farewell to Arms
"'Othello with his occupation gone,'" she teased." (Hemingway 257).

Othello Quote
"'Oh, now forever
Farewell the tranquil mind! Farewell content!
Farewell the plumèd troops and the big wars
That makes ambition virtue! Oh, farewell!
Farewell the neighing steed and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, th' ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner, and all quality,
Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!
And O you mortal engines, whose rude throats
The immortal Jove’s dead clamors counterfeit,
Farewell! Othello’s occupation’s gone.'" (Shakespeare A3, S3).

Othello speaks of what he believes to be the loss of his wife to another man just as Catherine teases Henry for his apparent jealousy.

The Title
Although it has become a commonly accepted "fact," it is only assumed that Hemingway consciously borrowed his title from the George Peele poem. Nobody knows for sure if he even knew the poem existed. Critics note that the poem shows the poet undergoing a series of transformations, somewhat similar to those experienced by Frederic Henry.
Hemingway's Place in the Literary World:
• Famous for his portrayal of men: masculine, strong, and heroic
• Well known for his dialogue style: simple and deliberate
• Received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954
• Won a Pulitzer Prize for his novel
The Old Man and the Sea

Rain is an important motif in
A Farewell to Arms
that symbolizes death. One possible
reason for the rain’s symbolic meaning is that “the start of the winter came the
permanent rain and with the rain came the cholera… seven thousand died of it in the
army” (4). This theme is first introduced in chapter one when the troops march
through the village and “were muddy and wet in their capes”, implying that the men
were surrounded by death. Catherine fears the rain. She believes “it’s hard on
loving” (126), and makes Henry promise that he loves her “and that the rain doesn’t
make a difference” (125). Henry doesn’t understand Catherine’s fear, and asks her to
explain. Catherine says “I see myself dead in it” and begins crying, at this point you
see that Catherine is truly upset, and not just superstitious. Another example of
imagery in
A Farewell to Arms
is when Henry describes Catherine’s hair. Henry
“would watch her while she kept very still and then take out the last two pins and it
would all come down and she would drop her head and we would both be inside of
it, and it was the feeling of inside a tent or behind a falls” (114). Henry uses such
descriptive language that it creates a picture in the reader’s mind, and sense of
touch. Catherine’s hair is also a symbol because like a tent, it gives the couple a
sense of protection from the war. In book 5, when Henry and Catherine are living in
Monteux to isolate themselves from the horrifying realities of war, Henry grows a
beard, which like Catherine’s hair, is used to symbolize protection.
The Horrifying Reality of War

A Farewell to Arms shows the gruesome and grim ways war rather than the glory,
patriotism, and heroism sometimes used to romanticize war. The book criticizes the
psychological damage the war inflicts on the soldiers. The war has caused Henry to
become cold and callous to the point where “abstract words such as glory, honor,
courage, or hollow were obsene” (185). After seeing Henry shoot an engineering
sergeant without remorse, we see the inevitability of death and suffering in war.
Henry and the other characters seem nonchalant about the shooting because they
are accustomed to the constant death that surrounds them and uses distractions
such as alcohol, girls, and games to forget personal problems.

Presented in the third and fourth book
Shows the difference between civilian and military life
Lt. Henry makes a conscious decision to desert
Known today as going "AWOL"
Lieutenant Frederic Henry
Catherine Barkley
The Priest
Nurse Helen Ferguson
Count Greffi
Masculinity and Femininity- In the beginning of the novel, the theme of masculinity is stereotypical: men are gruff; they drink, and are brave. Later into the novel though, it shows a different side to the men and delves deeper into who they truly are. It shows the humanistic characteristics of each of them, abandoning the once rough exterior. It shows their suffering and hurt. Women in this novel are portrayed in the traditional female role.
Ernest Hemingway’s tone is this novel is confessional and honest. At the beginning of the novel Henry confesses that, at first, he only pretends to love Catherine and is just playing games with her. This example leads readers to fell his confessional tone. He has allegiance to no country, but all the allegiance in the world to humankind, and thus no reason to spin the facts. Henry’s insistence on historical truth-telling helps us trust that his beautiful and terrible confession is very close to the truth.
This leads readers to feel his tone of honesty.
By Ernest Hemingway
Used in every section
Helpful in mellowing out and tough times
Foreignness and Distance
Different kinds of people
Causes trouble
Courage- Courage is an important theme in
A Farewell to Arms
. The main characters show courage and bravery in the sense that each of them attempt to find happiness-no matter how fleeting-despite the horrible war going on at the time. This also serves as a motif throughout the novel.
Hemingway, Ernest.
A Farewell To Arms.
New York: Scribner, 2003.
Hemingway, Ernest.
The Sun Also Rises.
United States of America: Scribner, 1954.
Our Thoughts
Spirit, Holy the.
The Holy Bible.
1 A.D. Print.
Shakespeare, William.
The Tragedy of Othello, the
Moor of Venice.
1622. Print.
"15 Interesting Facts about Ernest Hemingway."
KillAdjectivescom. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.
Shakespear, William.
The Tragedy of Julius
London, England. 1599. Print.
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