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7-16 all images backup CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

7-16 10 am1
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Matt Pedersen

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of 7-16 all images backup CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Likely Dominant
Proposed Shorthand
: SF

Additional Info
:
Snowflake appears to be dominant, but we lack definitive proof. Mating of Snowflake to wild-type fish produce 50% Snowflake, 50 % wild-type.

Reports that Snowflake X Snowflake produce Snowflake and wild-type fish make sense if both fish are "het" for Snowflake (SF/+). Detailed offspring headcounts would be useful.

The question remains what is a double-dose Snowflake (SF/SF); are these the more Swiss-Cheese / Buckshot type fish being seen? Or is the lack of any publicly acknowledged true-breeding Snowflakes indicative of the fact that (SF/SF) could be a fatal genetic combination?

Discovered by
: Tropical Marine Centre (TMC) in the UK, in CB fish.
"HALFBLACK"
"GLADIATOR / FANCY WHITE / DAVINCI"
Genetic
: Presumed Yes
Expression
: Unknown
Possible shortcode
: Nb

Additional Info
:
Bali Aquarich has introduced a variation called "Nebula", based on a wild collected percula which shows the phenotype. The fish appears to be "picasso", but with additional "smudgy" markings. Do we alleles on the same locus, two separate mutations interacting, and are they on the same locus or altogether separate? No one knows, but careful breeding and record keeping may one day reveal the secrets.

Discovered by
: Bali Aquarich via wild
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Partially Dominant
Proposed Abbreviation
: (Pc/+)

Additional Info
:
The most ubiquitous designer percula in existence. The origin of the platinum phenotype, which is the double-dose of the Picasso Gene.

Grading is arguably "out of control" with every breeder creating multiple grades in an effort to differentiate themselves, often even dropping the "Picasso" name from the equation. Yet all are Picasso, and while some strains may produce more of a certain "Grade", in the end they all throw the expected spread in Picasso X Picasso matings (25% wild type, 50% Picasso, 25% Platinum)

Discovered by
:
Developed by ORA from a wild Solomon Islands fish. Other wild fish that appear to be of the same mutation have been collected.
Genetics
: Unknown; All possibly genetic based on similar phenotypes in other species.
Expressions types
: Unknown







Additional Info
:
Bali Aquarich has shared three images of aberrant
A. chrysopterus
, presumably all out of their breeding with the species. Meteor (left) may be comparable to "Galaxy" Clarkii, White Eyebrow (center) = Pearl Eye, King Kong may simply be a misbar, or may be a semi-naked.
"LIGHTNING"
Genetic
: Appears to be
Expression
: Unknown
Possible Shorthand
: MC?

Additional Info
:
Numerous wild examples of spotted and horned fish found in PNG by collectors. Appears similar in structure to "Gold Flakes". Recurrence in captive-bred PNG lines led to Sea & Reef's commercial introduction of "Morse Code" Maroons.
"MORSE CODE"
Genetic
: Yes |
Expression
: Unknown
Possible shorthand
: Gf if genetically tied to GoldFlake, otherwise Gn?








Additional Info / Discovered By
:
Gold Nugget was derived from ORA's Goldflake Breeding Program. A solid white fish which turns yellow upon maturity.
Grading is used to pick out subtle nuances in a batch or line of fish as preferential. Selective breeding could cultivate the genetic modifiers which push a trait in a desired direction, but it does not change the genetic mutation itself.

Descriptions like Premium, Extreme, Insane, Ultra, Helmet, Moustache, Warrior, A Grade, B Grade, P1, P2, "Snowcasso TM" - are are still genetically single-dose Picasso
A. percula.





Not Really Genetics or a Strain
Let's Agree On Our Terms
Genetic Expression 101
Locus States
Geographic variants represent distinct populations, which may or may not vary in appearance throughout a species' range - while genetic in basis, they are not the cause of a "single gene" mutation.

To generalize - geographic variants "breed true":
two like parents = more of the same...







Geographic Variants are
Not Aberrations or Mutations
Some Common Abberations
Joyce Wilkerson's Lost Edition
SPECIES
GENETICS
HYBRIDS
THE PATH FORWARD
Currently 30 Recognized Clownfish Species
and #30.
Premnas biaculetus
Clownfish species are generally divided into a few "complexes" per current taxonomy
Species are not "Cut and Dry"
Two "New" Species Described in 2008 and 2010
Two "species" of dubious validity
Genetic Research Suggests Rethinking Relationships and Evolutionary Paths
source - http://users.atw.hu/fishindex/teleostei/euteleostei/percomorpha/perciformes/labroidei/pomacentridae/amphiprioninae.htm
"The Base Unit of Conservation" - Dr. Luiz Rocha
source - http://www.fishbase.org
At
least
two possible species (in my opinion) in need of review...
Geography's Influence on Species & Diversity
Source:

Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish

Simona Santini, Giovanni Polacco, 2006
Tropheus
diversity in Lake Tanganyika
Oophaga histrionica
geographic races and variants
Why Geography Matters
Cinnamon Clownfish - A. melanopus
races in the ocean
The Red Clownfish from FIJI (and Tonga)
Bred as
A. rubrocinctus
Later suggested
A. melanopus
Finally described as
A. barberi
But it ALWAYS remained
"The Red Clownfish from FIJI" (and Tonga)
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/7/137/
Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal different evolutionary processes
in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid genus Tropheus
Source - Graphic courtesy Andrew Clark
Polymorphism and population variation
For example, a range of phenotypes in wild-collected
Oophaga sylvatica
'Paru'

These wild frogs were all collected from the Otokiki reserve; (143 acres of tropical rainforests of northwestern Ecuador)

"Geographical barriers, ecological gradients, genetic drift, and sexual selection are the main mechanisms...which are [speculated as] shaping the variation observed."
Polymorphism and population variation
What about
Amphiprion clarkii?
source - Images Wikiri /
text - http://www.dendroworks.co.uk/index.php/available/54
Conservation-minded breeding
seeks to preserve naturally-occuring biodiversity*
*But how do you preserve that which you don't even understand?
Let's learn about our
30 Clownfish species
(and their variations):
We only conserve that
which we know.
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Clarkii-Complex
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Tomato-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Phalerebus
; Skunk-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Paramphiprion
; Saddleback-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Actinicola
; Percula-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Genus
Premnas
- the Maroon Clownfish
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Amphiprion clarkii
Amphiprion akindynos
Sources - Captive-bred by Sea & Reef Aquaculture (UL), CB via Proaquatix (LL), wild pair via Pacific Island Aquatics (Right)
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion allardi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Photos - Wild Subadult, Matt Pedersen (top right); Wild Pair (top left), CB dark juvenile (lower left), CB light juveniles (lower right) - all Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion bicinctus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Captive-bred juvenile, top right - courtesy Sea & Reef Aquaculture. Wild adult, bottom right - J.E. Randall
Amphiprion chagosenis
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - Rick Winterbottom - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24180561
Amphiprion chrysogaster
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left - Juvenile, Top right, adult (both Sanjay Joshi). Bottom center - wild juveniles - Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion chrysopterus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top left - Irian Jaya, Bali Aquarich. Top Center - PNG, EcoAquariums PNG, Top Right, Bottom left - Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics, Bottom Center - Fijian, Dr. Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com
Amphiprion fuscocaudatus
Image - J.E. Randall - http://fishbase.org/Photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=11842&what=species
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion latifasciatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - Laurent Plantard, Creative Commons - http://fishbase.org/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=latifasciatus#
Amphiprion omanensis
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top row - Richard Field - Bottom Row - J.E. Randall - http://fishbase.org/Photos/ThumbnailsSummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=omanensis
Amphiprion tricinctus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Wild Tricintus Photographs - Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion frenatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Row - Wild Philippine Tomato Clownfish - RVS Fishworld. Bottom Left - Wild, Majuro, Marshall Islands - Pacific Island Aquatics - Bottom Center - Captive Bred juvenile, ORA
Amphiprion barberi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Photos - top left - Paddy Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com | top right - captive bred juvenile, ORA | Bottom Left - Tongan Wild, J.E.Randall | Center Right - Fijian Wild, J.E. Randall
Amphiprion rubrocintus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home
Top left - J.E.Randall - http://pbs.bishopmuseum.org/images/JER/detail.asp?size=i&cols=10&ID=-264849592 | Top Right - Phill Heemstra / FishWise Professional | Bottom row - Darren Nancarrow
Some wild photos at http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=5, http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=6, http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=36
Amphiprion melanopus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Left Group of four - J.E. Randall, TL Australia, TR Noumea New Caledonia, BL Palau, BR Micronesia | Top Right, Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics. Bottom left - Stripeless / Polymoprhic form,
Coral Sea - Sustainable Aquatics captive bred. | Bottom right - captive bred New Caledonia, ORA
Amphiprion ephippium
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top left - Indonesia; Pulau Putri, J.E. Randall - http://pbs.bishopmuseum.org/images/JER/images.asp?nm=Amphiprion&loc=&size=i&cols=10, Top Center - Sumatra,, Right, F1 Sumatran juveniles, Bottom, ORA
Amphiprion mccullochi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left - Captive-bred juvenile, ORA | Right - J.E. Randall, Wild Adult - http://fishbase.org/summary/9208
Amphiprion akallopisos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left - captive bred,, Sustainable Aquatics -| Right, Wild Image, fish from Kenya, Dennis Polach - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24176635
Amphiprion pacificus
Image - Josh Jensen - http://www.underseaproductions.com/
Amphiprion sandaracinos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left, PNG Research, , | all others captive bred - Bali Aquarich, Top Right ORA, Bottom Right Sustainable Aquatics, Iriian Jaya location, Bottom left Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Amphiprion leucokranos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left - PNG, Thane Millitz, https://www.facebook.com/marineaquariumtraderesearch; Top Right - ORA wild broodstock; Bottom Left - PNG, SEASMART. Inset Collage - Ashton Gainsford, T Militz
Amphiprion perideraoin
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left Column - Top, Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Middle and Bottom "Sunkist" variants, - all Pacific Island Aquatics | Top Right - captive-bred Sunkist, Fijian, Sustainable Aquatics - Bottom Right,c-bred, ORA
Amphiprion nigripes
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Row - wild fish, Pacific Island Aquatics | Bottom Left - CB Bali Aquarich | Bottom Right - CB Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion thiellei
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images: Top Row - Clarkii from Philippines - RVS Fishworld Inc., ; Bottom Row Sri Lanka (left), Indian Ocean (right) - Bali Aquarich
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion polymnus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon- website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Main Image (top left) captive bred brown form, ORA
Amphiprion sebae
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Left - Wild, Richard Field, http://fishbase.org/photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=11846&what=species | Top Right - captive bred, Sustainable Aquatics | Bottom Right -CB, Sea & Reef Aquaculture, center CB Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion latezonatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - Top Right, Adult, Sustainable Aquatics.All other images CB juveniles, bred by Karen Brittain, photos by Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion ocellaris
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Captive Bred, Top Left (ORA), Bottom Left (Sea & Reef Aquacure) Bottom Middle (Sustainable Aquatics) Bottom Right (Proaquatix) | Cluster of 4 - Wild, Philippines, various locales - RVS Fish World Inc
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - all captive bred - Main (top left) Proaquatix, bottom left Sustainable Aquatics, Bottom Center ORA, Bottom Right Sea & Reef Aquaculture
See one in the wild at http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412
Amphiprion percula
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Premnas biaculeatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.html
Top Left Image - White Stripe Marooni, CB by Sea & Reef Aquaculture | Wild Solomon Islands White Stripe, Scott Johnson - http://www.fishbase.us/photos/UploadedBy.php?autoctr=9974&win=uploaded

Premnas epigrammata

Images - Top Left, juvenile, Proaquatix | Top Right, juvenile, ORA | Bottom Right, young fish showing color, Sustainable Aquatics | Bottom Left - CB fish with yellow color in - Bali Aquarich
Barrier Reef Clownfish - Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands
Allardi Clownfish - Western Indian Ocean; East Coast of Africa, and Mauritius
Clarkii Clownfish - Wide-ranging, Indo-West Pacific
Twoband Clownfish - Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Chagos
Chagos Clownfish, Chagos
Mauritian Clownfish, Mauritius and Réunion Island
Blue Stripe Clownfish, Orangefin Clownfish, widespread in the Pacific Ocean
"The Blue Stripe Anemonefish from Fiji and Tonga have YELLOW tails, and the Blue Stripe Anemonefish from Solomon and Marshall Islands have WHITE tails."
- Blue Zoo Aquatics
Seychelles Clownfish, Seychelles, Aldabra (Indian Ocean)
Madagascar Clownfish, Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Indian Ocean)
Oman Clownfish, Arabian Sea coast of Oman
Three Band Clownfish, Marshall Islands & Bikini Atoll
Tomato Clownfish | Western Pacific
Barberi Clownfish | Fiji, Tonga
Ruby Clownfish | Northwestern Australia
Cinnamon Clownfish | Pacific Ocean
Australia
Palau
Noumea, New Caledonia
Micronesia
Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands
Coral Sea
New Caledonia
Fire Clownfish, Red Saddle Clownfish | Eastern Indian Ocean
McCulloch's Clownfish, Whitesnout Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island
Top - Australian Black Clarkii - captive bred, Sustainable Aquatics. Bottom, Australian Black Clarkii - Bali Aquarich
A. clarkii
"Australian Black"
Philippines
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Indian Ocean
Irian Jaya
PNG
Fiji
Marshall Is.
Marshall Is.
Majuro, Marshall Is.
all Philippines ->
Research suggests
A. mccullochi
is most closely related to
A. akindynos.


"A. mccullochi is phylogenetically very distant from A. latezonatus and closely related to A. akindynos"
- Santini et. al., 2006



Perhaps McCullochi doesn't belong in the Tomato species complex, but rather belongs in the Clarkii complex?
Skunk Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Pacific Clownfish | Pacific: Wallis Island, Tonga, Fiji and Samoa
Orange Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Amphiprion
x
leucokranos
Gainsford, A., van Herwerden, L., Jones, G. (in review) Hierarchical behavior, habitat use and species size differences shape evolutionary outcomes of hybridization in a coral reef fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
Images - Ashton Gainsford, Thane Militz

"Is Leucokranos (White-bonnet clownfish) a hybrid? Why yes, yes it is - according to the most recent research. "

- Thane Militz
Whitebonnet Clownfish | Western Central Pacific Ocean
Pink Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Black Footed Clownfish | Western Indian Ocean: Maldives and Sri Lanka
Theille's Clownfish | Western Central Pacific (Cebu, Philippines)
"Some have argued that it is a hybrid between
A. chrysopterus
and
A. sandaracinos
...others firmly believe a different hybrid pairing,
A. sandaracinos
X
A. ocellaris
, is at the root of
A. thiellei
(Dr. Burgess is reported to be of the opinion that it is a valid species.)"

- CORAL Magazine, March/April 2014, Page 31
Saddleback Clownfish | Western Pacific
Sebae Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Wide Band Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Eastern Australia
Philippines - example of classic Brown form
Papua New Guinea - Yellow Chested Form
Black Form - Top Row Captive-Bred, ORA - Bottom Left, CB Bali form, BaliAquarich - Bottom Right - wild Black Philippines (Cebu) form - RVS Fish World
All Images - RVS Fish World Inc.
Top - Wild PNG, Matt Pedersen
Right - PNG Captive-Bred, Bali Aquarich
Maroon Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Eastern Australia
All photos are wild, Philippine Maroons - images by RVS Fish World Inc.
PNG White Stripe Maroons - all fish wild; Top Row, J.E. Randall; creative commons, http://fishbase.org/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?Genus=Premnas&Species=biaculeatus | Bottom Row, Matt Pedersen
"Sumatra / Gold Stripe"
Gold Stripe Maroon Clownfish | Indo-Pacific Border (Indian Ocean?) ; Sumatra, possibly East Java, possibly Malaysia/Borneo
Currently recognized only as
P. biaculeatus
, but was described decades ago as
P. epigrammata
(sometimes also
P. epigramma
)
Ocellaris Clownfish | Far-Eastern Indian Ocean & Western Pacific
Research suggests
A. latezonatus
is much more closely related to the Anticola subgenus, which includes
A. ocellaris
and
A. percula
.
Black Ocellaris Clownfish | Darwin, along the NW coast of Australia
Percula Clownfish, Orange Clownfish | Western Pacific; separate from Ocellaris
All 4 images - RVS Fish World Inc.. Top Left and Top Right - Wild, Phillipines. Bottom Left - San Pascual, Philippines; Bottom Right - Muntinlupa City, Philippines.
But what about this Black "Variant"?
Currently treated as a unique species in the MBI.
geographically isolated
matures slower
has smaller spawns,
extremely prone to misbarring
sounds more like
A. percula
?

We'll come back
to this "Variant"...
And then there's this yellow-striped "Variant"...
All fish here are wild from Papua New Guinea
Top left - SEASMART | Center Top & Center Middle - Unique Corals | Upper & Lower Right, Bottom - Thane Militz
All fish on white are captive-bred true percs.
Top - Sustainable Aquatics
Middle - Proaquatix
Bottom - ORA
Less Aggressive
Significantly Wider Stripes
Geographically Isolated
Strong tendency to lose stripes from bottom up as fish ages.

If you're going to walk a tightrope, you better do it right.
...are the key to being a better Designer Clownfish breeder.
It Starts As an Aberration*
Genetics 101 - Parents
Recurrent Mutations & Phenotypes
any fish which deviate from the mainstream norm, the "wild type", phenotype (appearance).

Example:
Aberrant Wild
A. ocellaris
from the Philippines
Aberrant / Aberration:
images by RVS Fish World Inc
Some Abberations Are
Albinism
is perhaps the most instantly recognized and well-understood genetic mutation in the animal kingdom. Multiple specific types of Albinism exist, but outwardly appear similar if not the same.
Left - Tangerine Albino Ocellaris developed by ProAquatix, image ReefBuilders / Jake Adams. Right - Albino ocellaris, Marcel Triessl, South Africa
Well-known Genetic Mutations
Aberrations Are Unclassified
Misbar / Mis-barred Clownfish were at one point assumed to be genetic mutations, but breeding has thoroughly disproven a genetic mutation behind traditional environmentally-caused misbarring.
Left - Misbar Onyx Percula, Center Misbar Black Ocellaris, Right Misbar Ocellaris - all images by Sustainable Aquatics
Until Breeding Trial Revelations
Some Genetics Are Revealed
The "Picasso Gene" is perhaps the closest thing we have to a well-understood single gene genetic mutation in Clownfish - years of breeding and transparency paved the way for understanding
Left - The original Solomon Islands male Picasso and Female Onyx foundation stock for ORA's line. Right - The offspring spread a few generations later in the hatchery of David Durr showing wild type, Picasso, and Platinum, all from a Picasso X Picasso pair.
ONLY Through Breeding Trials
"Onyx" Percula remain a genetic mystery. It seems everyone agrees you can't make an "Onyx" from fish that lack the genetic basis, but our understanding ends there...
Left - Rod's Onyx Foundation Pair, C-Quest Line; Right F0 Onyx Percula Pair (both Matt Pedersen images) Center Top - Sea & Reef CB Onyx Perc, Center Bottom Sustainable Aquatics CB Onyx Perc.
Defy Easy Categorization
CLOWNFISHES
Adult
A. chrysopterus
"Marshall Islands" at left, two groups of juvenile
A. chrysopterus
"Marshall Islands" at right - all images by Pacific Island Aquatics
=
Mixing geographic variants is akin to hybridization.
Each fish has two (2) alleles per locus. Each parental fish contributes one (1) allele to each offspring.

For each locus, the offspring will receive one (1) allele from the father, and one (1) from the mother
Homozygous:
Both alleles on the locus have the same genetic code. When these alleles are both mutant genes, common slang is to say the fish is "double dose" or "has two doses of X gene".

Heterozygous:
The alleles on the locus have different genetic code.
Common slang, particularly when talking about hidden genes, is to say the fish is "HET for X".
MOM
/
DAD
or
DAD
/
MOM
MOM / MOM
X
DAD / DAD
MOM / MOM
X

DAD / DAD
Expression
describes how an allele interacts with other alleles on the locus, with regards to phenotype.

Dominant
-
An allele that has full effect even when only in a het or single-dose state.

Partially Dominant
- An allele which has effect in a het state, but an additional effect in double-dose.

Recessive
- An allele which only has an effect in a homozygous, double-dose state.
Phenotype:
The outward appearance of the fish

Genotype:
The genetic makeup of the fish, which may or may not be reflected in the Phenotype

Wild-type:
the default, normal, common appearance of a fish. Genetically speaking, the common genes.
Denoted (+/+)
Genetic Shorthand
Angelfish Society Shorthand
Default Gene (wild type) is a plus sign = +
Dominant and Partially Dominant Genes are capitalized = M, G, D, Y etc...
Recessive Genes are lowercase. = a, pb, l, qe etc...
In Heterozygous states, the dominant gene is on the left side. For Example (M/g) or (+/g)

Each locus is separated by a dash, and each pair of alleles separated by a slash. The overall shorthand for fish is enclosed by parentheses, eg. (M/g - a/a - S/+)
- example (D/D)
- example (D/Y)
Genetic Sleuthing
The Phenotype of a fish may reveal some, but not all, of the Genotype.

For Example:





We can see the partially-dominant "Longfin",
but not the hidden recessive "Albino".
Phenotype: Longfin Ocellaris
Genotype: (Lf/+ - +/a)

Genetic Sleuthing
The Phenotype of the offspring can reveal both hidden genes in the parents, and expression types.





In this example, 1 in 4 offspring inherits both a hidden albino gene from MOM and DAD, thus is (a/a), and reveals the presense of hidden albino genes in the parents. It also reveals a simple recessive trait.
MOTHER
Phenotype: Orange Ocellaris
Genotype: (+/a)

FATHER
Phenotype: Orange Ocellaris
Genotype: (+/a)

75% of the Offspring
Phenotype: Orange Ocellaris
25% of the Offspring
Phenotype: Albino Ocellaris
X
Embrace Mutants
The Same Mutation
Can Be Found In Related Species
(but it might look different!)
Top fish = wild type.

Next 4 fish all carry the exact same pax7 mutant gene, but each species expresses it differently!*
*raises questions about things like
Picasso Percs and DaVinci Ocellaris...
source - Colour variation in cichlid fish: Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences
https://www.scienceopen.com/document/id/76a551ff-f8ac-46b4-b850-d5acde2a0b4d
Picasso Percula
(Ps/+)
Platinum Percula
(Ps/Ps)
DaVinci Ocellaris
(WW/+)
Wyoming White Ocellaris
(WW/WW)
Single and Double-Dose
striping mutation as manifest in
A. percula
Single and Double-Dose
striping mutation as manifest in
A. ocellaris
*morph is synonymous in this instance
GRADING IS
Left 3 Columns - Picasso types by Bali Aquaric; Column 4 and 5, images by Alpha Aquaculture; Far Right Column - ORA
Mate Choices / Breeding Types
Line Breeding
-
Mating sibling to sibling from one generation to the next. Useful to help establish a strain, reduces genetic variation over time, can help breeders discover new recessive mutations.
Causes inbreeding and weakens fish over time.

Backcross
- mating a child to its parent. Used to quickly fix strains / isolate genetics.

Outcross
- mating between two unrelated fish. Increases genetic diversity, imparts vigor, repairs genetic constriction caused by inbreeding.
Strains Are More Complex
The effect of selectively breeding is to adjust many unknown genes simultaneously to achieve a desired outcome. A strain "breeds true".

Sustainable Aquatic's "Fancy"
A. ocellaris
is perhaps the best example of a selectively-bred strain; selection for thick black edging has paid off.





Left - Fancy Ocellaris; Right - Extreme Fancy Ocellaris - both images Sustainble Aquatics
Selective Breeding Plays a Role
Why are genetic mutations tolerable* when weighed against conservation breeding?
Many aberrations and/or mutations seem to occur across two or more clownfish species; some closely, some distantly related.
PEARL EYE*
REDUCED

OVER
SOLID
SPOTTING
BLACK
SMUDGY
CLASSIC
Pearl Eye in
A. bicinctus
ORA
Silver Eye in
A. percula
?
Sustainable Aquatics
Pearl Eye in
A. clarkii
Sustainable Aquatics
Pearl Eye in
A. chrysopterus
Bali Aquarich
STRIPES*
Extreme Misbarr in
A. ocellaris
"DARWIN" - ORA
Extreme Misbarr in
A. ocellaris
- ORA
Domino in
A. ocellaris
"DARWIN" - ORA
Domino in
A. ocellaris
- Sustainable Aquatics
Naked (Midnight)
A. ocellaris
"DARWIN" - ORA
Naked
A. ocellaris
- ORA
"Extreme Misbar" in wild
A. percula
"Solomon Islands" - Blue Zoo Aquatics
"Extreme Misbar" in wild
A. percula
"Solomon Islands" - Blue Zoo Aquatics
Naked wild P. biaculeatus "PNG" - SEASMART
"Extreme Misbar" in wild
A. percula
"PNG" - Unique Corals
BARRING
Wild "Phantom"
A. frenatus
RVS Fish World Inc.
Picasso A. percula
Proaquatix
Gold Flake
P. biaculeatus
ORA
DaVinci
A. ocellaris
Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Snowflake
A. ocellaris
Sea & Reef Aquaculture
BARRING
TL - Platinum
A. percula
- ORA

TR - Wyoming White
A. ocellaris
- Proaquatix

BL - White Horse
A. polymnus
- ReefBuilders

BR - Gold Nugget
P. biaculeatus
- ORA
Spocinctus
A. bicinctus

(CB) - ORA
Meteor
A. chrysopterus

(CB) - Bali Aquarich
Galaxy
A. sebae

(CB) - Bali Aquarich
Morse Code
P. biaculeatus
(WILD, PNG)
EcoAquarium PNG
Spotted
A. ocellaris
(WILD, Philippines)
RVS Fish World Ltc.
UNDER WHITE
I speculate this is the mechanism responsible for the various "green", "blues", "pinks" and "dirty" markings that show up in certain stripe regions.
Blue Dot on
Gold Stripe Maroon
Wild, Borneo;
Brandon Melhoff
Green on Snowflake A. ocellaris
CB, Bali Aquarich
Galaxy
A. clarkii
Bali Aquarich
"Dirty" Picasso
A. percula
CB, Bali Aquarich
Blue Edging on
Picasso
A. percula
CB, Bali Aquarich
Gray or "Dirty" spot
on DaVinci
A. ocellaris
CB, Bali Aquarich
BARRING
GENES
Smudgy Fancy White
A. ocellaris
CB, Sustainable Aquatics
SA Extreme Picasso
A. percula
CB, image Alpha Aquaculture
Nebula
A. percula
CB, Bali Aquarich
Gold Flake
P. biaculeatus
CB, ORA
Fancy Snowflake
A. ocellaris
CB, Alpha Aquaculture

"The species
A. nigripes
lives in the Maldives, Laccadives and in Sri Lanka and the closely related species
A. chagosensis
in the Chagos archipelago. Both species are distributed (without overlapping) uniquely in the central Indian Ocean and present similar morphology, such as light body color (yellow to orange), truncate caudal fin and darkish anal and pelvic fins, but
A. nigripes
has a single white bar, while
A. chagosensis
has two bars."

- Santini et. all, 2006
DOES
A. chagosensis
belong in the Skunk Complex?
source - Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish
ALBINO
LONGFIN
Known genetic mutations seen in a wide range of fish beyond clownfish...
Where is
A. latezonatus
?
source: Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish - 2006
Being most closely related to
A. chagosensis
, should

1)
A. chagosensis
join
A. nigripes
here in the Skunk-complex

- OR -

2) should
A. nigripes
actually be thought of as part of the Clarkii-complex, where
A. chagosensis
is placed?
EYE CANDY
A look at Wild Aberrations and Known Genetic Mutations in pure species.
*I'll disambiguate wherever possible*
They're
WILD foundation
A. percula
"Solomon Island Picasso"
ORA
WILD foundation
P. biaculeatus
"PNG Lightning"
Matt Pedersen
WILD foundation
A. percula
"Nebula"
Bali Aquarich
Controllable
They're
Natural
Multiple noteworthy proven designer Genes were found IN THE WILD
Once a aberration is proven genetic and its expression understood,
it is easily controlled and even removed from a captive population.
Wild-type fish provide the critical tool used to "strip out"
designer genes and stabilize inbred lines.
Then again, whether a genetic mutation is "wild or not",
is an arbitary line at this point. Here's why...
The value of wild, and wild-type fish, as a breeding tool
for genetic manipulation and outcrossing ensures savvy breeders keep them around, even if they are not popular.
Subgenus
Phalerebus
; Skunk-Complex (0)
Amphiprion akallopisos
Dennis Polach - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24176635
Amphiprion pacificus
Image - Josh Jensen - http://www.underseaproductions.com/
Amphiprion sandaracinos

Images - Sustainable Aquatics, Iriian Jaya location
Amphiprion leucokranos
Images - PNG, SEASMART.
Amphiprion perideraoin
Image - Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion nigripes
Images - CB Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion thiellei
Image - Walter D. Laroque V (WDLV)
Skunk Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Pacific Clownfish | Pacific: Wallis Island, Tonga, Fiji and Samoa
Orange Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Whitebonnet Clownfish | Western Central Pacific Ocean
Pink Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Black Footed Clownfish | Western Indian Ocean: Maldives and Sri Lanka
Theille's Clownfish | Western Central Pacific (Cebu, Philippines)
MOVE ALONG - NOTHING TO SEE HERE!
The Skunk-complex is notable for its absence of any currently known genetic mutations, nor any examples of wild aberrations that might be genetic in nature, or for that matter wild aberrations of any kind!


We'll revisit it one more time though...
Subgenus
Paramphiprion
; Saddleback-Complex (2)
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Amphiprion polymnus
(1)
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon- website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Main Image (top left) captive bred brown form, ORA
Amphiprion sebae
(1)
Image - captive bred, Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion latezonatus
(0)
Image - Sustainable Aquatics
Saddleback Clownfish | Western Pacific
Sebae Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Wide Band Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Eastern Australia
"WHITE HORSE"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Little is known about this mutation. It's suggested that 2% of offspring show the phenotype.

Discovered by
: Ekkachai Hengarngla in Thailand in captive bred offspring.
for more info: http://reefbuilders.com/2012/11/26/sports-white-body-mutation/
Amphiprion polymnus
"GALAXY"
Genetic
: Presumed Yes
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
This phenotype mimics other spot/overbar mutations in other species. Not much else is known.

Discovered by
:
Bali Aquarich,
source unknown
image - Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion sebae
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Tomato-Complex (4)
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Captive bred fish showing this phenotype have been called "Picasso" or "Galaxy", produced by Bali Aquarich, and more subtle fish by Fisheye Aquaculture. A wild fish from the Philippines showing extremely similar markings, was called "Phantom" by RVS Fish World Inc.
Amphiprion frenatus
(3)
Amphiprion barberi
(o)

Photo - Paddy Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com
Amphiprion rubrocintus
(0)

Image - J.E.Randall - http://pbs.bishopmuseum.org/images/JER/detail.asp?size=i&cols=10&ID=-264849592 |
Amphiprion melanopus
(o)

Image - Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion ephippium
(1)
Amphiprion mccullochi
(0)
Image- Captive-bred juvenile, ORA
Tomato Clownfish | Western Pacific
Barberi Clownfish | Fiji, Tonga
Ruby Clownfish | Northwestern Australia
Cinnamon Clownfish | Pacific Ocean
Fire Clownfish | Eastern Indian Ocean
McCulloch's Clownfish, Whitesnout Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island
"PHANTOM / PICASSO / GALAXY "
top row - CB, Bali Aquarich | bottom row; left, Fisheye Aquaculture; right, Philippines, WILD, RVS Fish World Inc.
Amphiprion frenatus
Melanistic?
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Appears similar to "Rotten Tomato"
A. frenatus
. Appears to be a captive-bred juvenile due to lingering headstripe. Nothing else is known at this time.

Discovered by
:
Bali Aquarich, source unknown
image - Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion ephippium
Wild-collected Aberrations
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown
all images - Philippines, WILD, RVS Fish World Inc.
Amphiprion frenatus
Additional Info
:
RVS Fish World Inc. has documented numerous wild Philippine Tomato Clownfish
with unusual markings. Most unusual markings congregate around the headstripe.
Zombie Albino
A.ocellaris "Darwin"
CB, Robert King & Tom Lamb
Tangerine Albino
A.ocellaris
CB, Proaquatix - Image ReefBuilders
Longfin
A. ocellaris
CB, Sustainable Aquatics
Longfin
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"
CB, Sea & Reef Aquaculture
ALBINISM
is Common
LONGFIN
is Common
"ROTTEN TOMATO "
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Reportedly the black juvenile ultimately gained red coloration.

Discovered by
:
Fisheye Aquacuture
in captive bred offspring.
all images by Fisheye Aquaculture
Amphiprion frenatus
Genus
Premnas
- the Maroon Clownfish (8)
Premnas biaculeatus
(4)
Premnas epigrammata

Maroon Clownfish | West Pacific
"Sumatra / Gold Stripe" (4)
Gold Stripe Maroon Clownfish | Indo-Pacific Border (Indian Ocean?); Sumatra, possibly East Java, possibly Malaysia/Borneo

all images - ORA
Premnas epigrammata
GOLD FLAKE / GOLD SPOT
Genetic
: YES |
Expression
: Unknown / Undisclosed
Possible shorthand
: GF
main image - ORA
Premnas epigrammata
Additional Info
:
Named by Sustainable Aquatics, recurrent phenotype in captive-bred lines, ORA alos had "Jigsaw" broodstock. ORA investigated, and found genetic basis which lead to formal commercial introduction. May be multiple genes / mutations.
"BLUE DOT"
Genetic
: Unlikely

Additional Info
:
Brandon Melhoff (ND) reports that 0% of offspring show the Blue Dot (all are fully-barred). This likely eliminates a genetic basis.

Discovered by
:
iBlueWater, several wild examples from Borneo
all images by Brandon Melhoff
Premnas epigrammata
"PEACE KEEPER"
Genetic
: Presumed Yes
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Not much is known about the Peace Keeper Maroon yet. Unaware of commercial release yet.

Discovered by
:
Introduced by Captive Bred in Israel in 2014
Peace Keeper Maroon Images - Captive Bred
Premnas epigrammata
"GOLD NUGGET"
Pearl Eye in Gold Flake
Premnas biaculeatus
Mike Hoang
GOLD FLAKE Namesake - ORIGINAL Goldflake Maroons from SUSTAINABLE AQUATICS
GOLD FLAKE by Sustainable Aquatics
GOLD FLAKE by Mike Hoang
GOLD DOT / GOLD FLAKE by ORA
We'll Revisit This Fish
GOLD FLAKE by Fisheye Aquaculture
We'll Revisit These Fish
So I said we'd come back to this Gold Flake from ORA...
And Jonathan Foster is working with these at Fisheye...
And this fish showed up a while back via Bali Aquarich...
Are these predecessors to Captive Bred's new line? The...
top row - CB, Bali Aquarich | bottom row; left, Fisheye Aquaculture; right, Philippines, WILD, RVS Fish World Inc.
Premnas biaculeatus
Wild-collected Aberrations
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown
right - Naked Maroon, PNG, Seasmart. Left image group - Philippines, WILD, RVS Fish World Inc.
Premnas biaculeatus
(2)
Additional Info
:
Philippines fish show some variation in terms of stripe coloration, and reduced or oddly-shaped stripes are occasionally seen. A naked form was collected in PNG.
Bottom Left - Steve Robison, all others Matt Pedersen
Premnas biaculeatus
wild variations out of the Philippines - RVS Fish World Inc.
Some of the first wild Morse Codes, collected by SEASMART
More wild Morse Codes types, collected by EcoAquariums PNG
EcoAquariums PNG Morse Codes, photographed by EcoReef UK
EcoAquariums PNG Morse Codes, images by Unique Corals
More likely "Morse Code", wild PNG, images Thane Militz
The wild PNG fish from SEASMART that I originally called a "Morse Code Maroon" simply to ID it; the name took off.
F1 PNG Morse Codes showed up in my breeding...
F1 PNG Morse Codes from Sea & Reef - unrelated to mine
Genetic
: Yes
Expression
: Unknown
Proposed Shorthand
: Lt

Additional Info
: Genetic inheritance is proven, the expression will come with further breeding trials. Relationship with "Morse Code" remains unknown

Discovered by
:
Steve Robinson, in the wild, PNG, 2008
The ORIGINAL Wild PNG Lightning Maroon, Steve Robinson, 2008
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Clarkii-Complex (10)
Amphiprion clarkii
(4)
Amphiprion akindynos
(o)
Image - wild via Pacific Island Aquatics

Amphiprion allardi
(o)

Photos - Wild Subadult, Matt Pedersen
Amphiprion bicinctus
(2)
Amphiprion chagosenis
(0)

Image - Rick Winterbottom - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24180561
Amphiprion chrysogaster
(0)
Images - adult, wild, Sanjay Joshi
Amphiprion chrysopterus
(4)
Amphiprion fuscocaudatus
(0)
Image - J.E. Randall - Creative Commons - http://fishbase.org/Photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=11842&what=species
Amphiprion latifasciatus
(0)
Image - Laurent Plantard, Creative Commons - http://fishbase.org/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=latifasciatus#
Amphiprion omanensis
(0)
Images, wild, Richard Field - creative commons - http://fishbase.org/Photos/ThumbnailsSummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=omanensis
Amphiprion tricinctus
(0)
Wild Tricintus Photographs - Pacific Island Aquatics
Barrier Reef Clownfish - Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands
Allardi Clownfish - Western Indian Ocean; East Coast of Africa, and Mauritius
Clarkii Clownfish - Wide-ranging, Indo-West Pacific
Twoband Clownfish - Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Chagos
Chagos Clownfish, Chagos
Mauritian Clownfish, Mauritius and Réunion Island
Blue Stripe Clownfish, Orangefin Clownfish, widespread in the Pacific Ocean
Seychelles Clownfish, Seychelles, Aldabra (Indian Ocean)
Madagascar Clownfish, Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Indian Ocean)
Oman Clownfish, Arabian Sea coast of Oman
Three Band Clownfish, Marshall Islands & Bikini Atoll
"METEOR, WHITE EYEBROW, KING KONG"
all images Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion chrysopterus
(3)
"NORTHERN LIGHTS"
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info:
Only one. I called it a "Lightning" Blue Stripe when I saw it. The owner has dubbed it
"Northern Lights".

Discovered By:
Walt Smith International, wild, Fiji
main image - Walt Smith International - Inset Image - a wild-type A. chrysopterus from Fiji, Dr. Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com
Amphiprion chysopterus
(1)
"SPOTCINCTUS"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Unknown
Possible shorthand
: Sp

Additional Info
:
Have also seen it called "Spocinctus" and "Spotocinctus". The original major designer clarkii-complex fish. Likely the same mutation as Galaxy Clarki. Note ubiquitous pearl eye.

Discovered by
:
ORA in captive bred lines.
Main Image - ORA
Amphiprion bicinctus
*IS PEARL EYE GENETIC?
ORA believes so. "We’re not sure what causes the eye spots, but our scientists believe it may be caused by a recessive gene that rarely manifests itself. We’ve noticed that these unique spots are produced by both Pearl-Eye Clarkii and regular Clarkii broodstock."

Frankly, I'm not so sure. It seems far too common place, and perhaps is more likely something environmentally caused, not unlike most misbars.

That said, "Pearl Eye" seems to be more commonplace in variants that have other "additional white", and less common as a standalone phenotype.
*ARE BAR REDUCTIONS GENETIC?
NAKED Ocellaris absolutely have a genetic component, but misbars are commonplace and are generally environmentally triggered.

Certain races/species are more prone to misbarring, suggesting a genetic predisposition. Some clownfish simply lose bars with age (Gold Stripe Maroons in particular).

Knowing the species / variety well, can give you insights into the likelihood that reduced, broken, or missing bars is genetic, or simply the result of external factors.

A subtle point of understanding - when a breeder sells a fish as "misbar", it carries a suggestion that it is a non-genetic phenotype.
Several examples of Spotcinctus, images by ORA
Additional Spotcinctus examples, TL Daniel Knop / ReefGen, TR Sea & Reef Aquaculture, BL Sustainable Aquatics, BR Jake Adams / Reef Builders
ORA Reference - http://www.orafarm.com/products/fish/clowns/pearl-eye-clarkii/
Naked Genetic Basis Reference - Linda Close, Midnight Mariculture, Personal Communication. ORA via http://www.orafarm.com/products/fish/clowns/naked/ and http://www.orafarm.com/products/fish/clowns/domino/
Is this wild Naked PNG Maroon simply an old fish that has lost all its stripes, or is there a genetic basis like that of other Naked forms in related species?
"PEARL EYE"
Genetic
: Possibly
Expression
: Unknown, Possibly recessive or multi-locus
Possible shorthand
: pe

Additional Info
:
Very straightforward phenotype, wild type fish with partial white eye pigmentation. Mutation seen in 3 species of CB Clarkii-Complex fish

Discovered by
:
Presumably ORA
Amphiprion bicinctus
Image - Sustainable Aquatics
"GALAXY"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Unknown
Possible shorthand
: Sp or Gx

Additional Info
:
Outwardly appears to be the same as the mutation in
A. bicinctus
known as "Spotcinctus". Was also called "Picasso Clarkii" at first.

Discovered by
:
Bali Aquarich, presumably in captive-bred lines.
All Images - Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion clarkii
"PEARL EYE"
Genetic
: Possibly
Expression
: Unknown, Possibly recessive or multi-locus
Possible shorthand
: pe

Additional Info
:
Very straightforward phenotype - Pearl Eye A. clarkii have been around for decades.

Discovered by
:
Unknown
Amphiprion clarkii
Smudgy?
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Bali Aquarich displayed a single image of an Indian Ocean Clarkii with what appears to be Galaxy type markings, but lacking the typical well defined border and illustrating the "smudgy" trait. What will come from this?

Discovered by
: Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion clarkii
Image - Bali Aquarich
Images - Top - Bali Aquaric. Bottom, left to right - ORA, Sustainable Aquatics, Proaquatix
"BLUE DOT"
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
Blue Dot Maroons are not likely genetic, although one line of Blue Dot Clarkii is purported to be offspring of a wild blue dot parent with a "mild picasso" parent. The jury is out, I am skeptical. The blue coloration is, in my opinion, simply a function of the white markings being small in size, and thus having back under white, which renders blue.

Discovered by
: Unknown, either iBluewater or Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion clarkii
Image - Bali Aquarich
further reading: http://www.advancedaquarist.com/blog/blue-spotted-picasso-clarkii-clownfish
One of the first images of a highly patterned Galaxy Clarkii
Young Galaxy Clarkii
Galaxy Clarkii with brown-orange base coloration
Galaxy Clarkii with dark base coloration
Subgenus
Actinicola
; Percula-Complex (18)
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Amphiprion ocellaris
(12)
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin" (4)*
Amphiprion percula
(4)
Ocellaris Clownfish | Far-Eastern Indian Ocean & Western Pacific
Black Ocellaris Clownfish | Darwin, along the NW coast of Australia
Percula Clownfish, Orange Clownfish | Western Pacific; separate from Ocellaris
"PICASSO"
Amphiprion percula
"ONYX"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Unknown
Possible shorthand
: O

Additional Info
:
Onyx as a phenotype is found in wild populations of Percula. There appears to be both a genetic basis, but also environmental components that govern expression. Captive Bred, selective-bred lines are more apt to develop fully black flanks and better barring. Some lines have black dorsals, some not. Note, this dorsal variation exists even in the wild.

Discovered by
:
Named by Bill Addison, C-Quest
Amphiprion percula
"NEBULA"
Amphiprion percula
All images by Bali Aquarich
MAIN IMAGE -Wild, PNG, SEASMART
"PLATINUM"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Partially Dominant
Proposed shorthand : (Pc/Pc)

Additional Info
:
Platinums appeared directly out of ORA's original Picasso lines almost simultaneously with mutiple breerers. This was inevitable now that we understand the genetics. Platinums are simple the phenotype that results from a double-dose, homozygous state of the Picasso gene. Sea & Reef's "Maine Blizzard" is synonymous.

Discovered by
: ORA
Amphiprion percula
Main Image - ORA
My OLD Wild Onyx Pair - likely Solomon Islands based on where wild percs were being imported from at the time of purchase.
Rod Buehler's broodstock, the parents of the now famous "Rod's Onyx", decendents of the C-Quest line.
Multiple lines of captive-bred Onyx Percula; top row, and lower left, all "Onyx with Extra White", bottom right bred by Sustainable Aquatics. All images by Alpha Aquaculture
main photo - wild ORA pair that started it all (image by ORA)
Examples of wild-collected suspected Picasso-type A. Percula
Solomon Islands, Wild
Image by Blue Zoo Aquatics
Solomon Islands, Wild
Image by Blue Zoo Aquatics
PNG, Wild, collected by EcoAquariums PNG
Bottom right image by Unique Corals; all others EcoAquariums PNG
Examples of higher grade Picasso Percs from various breeders;
images by Alpha Aquaculture.
Examples of higher grade Picasso Percs from various breeders;
images by Alpha Aquaculture.
Examples of Picasso Percs from Bali Aquarich
Top Row, Platinum (left) and Silver Eye Platinum (Right) - images by Sustainable Aquatics.
Bottom Row, Platinum (left) by Proaquatix, Platinum also showing a possible silver eye (right) by Fisheye Aquaculture
PLATINUM Percula examples from 3 Commercial Hatcheries
PLATINUM Percs (Bottom) and "JCA Purple Platinum" Percula (Top row) - images by Alpha Aquaculture. Purple coloration likely other pigments showing through the white scale layer.
The wild
A. percula
that started Bali Aquarich's Nebula line...
Some additional captive-bred Nebular Perculas from Bali Aquarich.
"NAKED"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: UNKNOWN

Additional Info
:
Per multiple accounts, Naked-Type Ocellaris produce a range of offspring, some breeders suggesting everything from Naked to fully barred. ORA's website suggests that Naked Orange Ocellaris breed true. Therefore, genetics are indeterminant, but what is known is that Nakeds do produce more Nakeds, and likely you can't get nakeds through simple environmental misbarring of normally patterned fish. "Nearly Naked" fish, often with simple white spots, are part of the offspring range of Naked clownfish, but are very rare.

Discovered by
: ORA in captive-bred fish
Amphiprion ocellaris
Main Image - ORA; Inset images - Top Row Sustainable Aquatics, botom row Sea & Reef Aquaculture.
"SNOWFLAKE"
Amphiprion ocellaris
Main Image - Proaquatix
"FANCY"
Genetic
: YES, but not likely single allele.
Expression
: A STRAIN

Additional Info
:
Possibly one of the first true-breeding "strains" in the marine breeding world, "FANCY" Ocellaris are hyper-melanistic forms which can range from abnormally heavy black edging to fish that approach "Onyx Percula" type appearances. Given that this is not believed to be a single allele mutation, it is also not something necessarily easily controlled. However, this line can be used to impart "more black" into any other genetic mutation or combination, as Fancy functions as a wild-type fish in those situations.

Developed by
: Sustainable Aquatics in captive-bred fish.
Amphiprion ocellaris
Sustainable Aquatics Fancy above, Super Fancy below.
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Partially Dominant
Proposed shorthand
: (Ww/+)

Additional Info
:
This phenotype in Ocellaris has been known by so many names, including the above, as well as Stormtrooper and others. Invariably, they are all representative of a single dose of an over-barring allele, discovered by C-Quest. While Gladiator was the original public name, it has since been applied to too many other forms as well, including other species.

Since it takes two doses of the gene to make a Wyoming White, and since recognition of the gene didn't formally arrive until folks started outcrossing Wyoming Whites back to Ocellaris, I am of the opinion that for the sake of clarity, we refer to the allele as the Wyoming White gene, and use Ww for an abbreviation.

Furthermore, since the name DaVinci has ONLY been applied to the single-dose phenotype, again for the sake of clarity, it is preferential to call these het fish DaVinci.

"Fancy White" is the name applied to single-dose fish which include the "Fancy" strain genetics out of Sustainable Aquatic's lines. The ubiquity of "Fancy White" for the single-dose phenotype has overshadowed the technicality that a Fancy White, and a DaVinci, are not exactly the same. We might better think of SA's Fancy whites as "Fancy DaVinci".

There have been occasional examples of wild clownfish which appear to carry this gene.

Discovered by
: C-Quest
Amphiprion ocellaris
Main Images - Sea & Reef Aquaculture
"WYOMING WHITE"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Partially Dominant
Proposed shorthand : (Ww/Ww)

Additional Info
:
As near as everyone can tell, the Wyoming White is the homozygous, double-dose form of whatever genetic causes the DaVinci/Fancy White striping.

It would appear that this overall genetic group behaves in Ocellaris the same way that Picasso behaves in Percula.

Wyoming White was the final name given to the phenotype; initially it was called "Cotton Candy Clownfish". Sustainable Aquatics has dropped the Wyoming portion of the name (believe it to be more of a breeder's mark) and simply calls these fish SA White.

Discovered by
: C-Quest in captive bred fish.
Amphiprion ocellaris
Main Image - Proaquatix
"WIDE BAR GLADIATOR / VIVID FANCY"
Genetic
: Presumed YES
Expression
: UNKNOWN

Additional Info
:
A strain or mutation I had forgotten about, presumed lost with the closure of C-Quest. Sea & Reef Aquaculture has brought the fish back.

Sustainable Aquatics offers their "Vivid Fancy", which is said to be offspring from the Fancy White (Davinci) line of genetic breeding (would be unique as it would carry the Fancy strain genetics in addition to the genetic basis for Wide-Bar).
SA also reports Fancy White (DaVinci) may be produced through matings of "Vivid Fancy". Noting that "Vivid Fancy" shares the same wide center-stripe as Wide-Bar Gladiator, could they in fact be the same thing?

The implication that these fish can produce DaVinci / Fancy White suggest we may need to rethink our understanding of thee genetics involved. Or could these fish simply be the "lowest of the low" grade DaVinci / Fancy White, and genetically no different? If these fish, when mated together, would produce both DaVinci and Wyoming White phenotypes along with Wide-Bar and wild type, then these fish would genetically the same as DaVinci and would only represent a "grade". Or could there be two genes at play here that we don't fully understand?

Discovered by
: C-Quest
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images - Top - Wide Bar Gladiator by Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Bottom - Vivid Fancy by Sustainable Aquatics;
Insets are wild-type ocellaris for comparison
"COLOR CHANGING"
Genetic
: Presumed YES
Expression
: Unknown / Undisclosed

Additional Info
:
Perhaps the most unusual mutation and/or strain to date, Sustainable Aquatics Color Changing Ocellaris starts life as an orange fish, but turns to black at some point in it's life, very rapidly. Not all offspring from the foundation pair change. The "black" is said to be different than that of a "Black" / Darwin.

Discovered by
: Sustainable Aquatics in captive-bred fish
Amphiprion ocellaris
Unchanged (bottom), transitioning (middle), completely transitioned (top) - by Sustainable Aquatics
Xanthic?
Genetic
: Unknown
Expression
: Unknown

Additional Info
:
A wild collected fish; at first it was up for debate as to wether it represented A. ocellaris or A. percula. One source purports the fish was collected in Palawan, Philippines, which would make the fish A. ocellaris unless presented with contrary evidence.

Xanthic or "Golden" mutations in fish are generally recessive traits.

Discovered by
: Wild
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images courtesy Reef Builders
"ALBINO"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: presumed recessive
Proposed shorthand : (a/a)

Additional Info
:
This classic albino form of A. ocellaris was discovered in South Africa by marine fish hobbyist Marcel Triessl. Sadly this mutation was lost; due to South African law, it was technically illegal to even allow a non-native marine fish to breed. Triessl's revelation landed him in jail and court and ultimately the fish were most likely all lost / destroyed. However, albinism is one of the most common genetic mutations, so it is possible that this classic albino form could be discovered again.

Discovered by
: Marcel Treissl
Amphiprion ocellaris
Image - Marcel Treissl
"TANGERINE ALBINO"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: presumed recessive
Proposed shorthand : (ta/ta)

Additional Info
:
Tangerine Albino appears to differ from the "classic" albino discovered by Marcel Triessl; Tangerine albinos
seem
to allow limited melanin production, which is particularly noticeable where fins would ordinarily be edged in black. Still
could
be the same as Triessl's albino.

Discovered by
: Proaquatix in captive bred offspring
Amphiprion ocellaris
Image - Jake Adams / Reef Builders
"LONGFIN"
Genetic
: YES
Expression
: Undetermined
Proposed Shortcode
: LF

Additional Info
:
Longfin mutations are ubiquitous in the fish world - it was only a matter of time before one was found in Ocellaris Clownfish. Most longfin mutations are dominant or partially dominant.

Discovered by
: Sustainable Aquatics in captive bred offspring
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images - Sustainable Aquatics
further reading - http://reefbuilders.com/2011/08/08/color-changing-ocellaris-clownfish/
NAKED (left) and Nearly-Naked (right); top images Sustainable Aquatics, bottom images Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Sustainable Aquatics Fancy White Grades: TL "Extreme", TR "Semi", BL normal Fancy White, BR "Smudgy"
*I'll speculate A LOT*
*History may well prove me right or wrong*
"ZOMBIE ALBINO"
Genetic
: Presumed YES
Expression
: Presumed Recessive

Additional Info
:
This albino form arose a few years back in presumably captive bred Black Ocellaris broodstock that was purchased as-wild in the early 2000s.

It clearly allows some melanin or dark pigmentation to develop, which suggests it may be the same basic mutation as what is seen in Tangerine Albino
A. ocellaris.

Discovered by
:
Robert King and Tom Lamb
All images Tom Lamb
Genetic
: Highly Unlikely

Additional Info
:
Interesting story - I had forgotten about these unusual fish until I went fishing for some last minute images! The "Half Black" ocellaris were large (adult size) culls from Darwin Ocellaris parents that Joe Lichtenbert had in his basement (Joe refused to kill culls). I suggested that, respectfully, these looked like nothing anyone had ever seen. He gave me the pair.

Once introduced to a reef aquarium, within 1 month the orange coloration started to darken. At 5 months, the striking color pattern was completely gone, leaving me with regular appearing Black Ocellaris.

Discovered by
: Joe Lichtenbert, RPI
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
Image by Matt Pedersen
"LONGFIN"
Genetic
: Presumed YES
Expression
: Unknown / Undisclosed

Additional Info
:
This Longfin Mutation was discovered in Sea & Reef Black Ocellaris breeding lines only months after the annoucement of Longfin in Orange Ocellaris lines by Sustainable Aquatics. It is presumed to have arisen independently. Most longfin mutations in fish are dominant or partially dominant

Discovered by
: Sea & Reef Aquaculture in captive-bred fish
images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
* What about "S'Mores", "Black Ice", "Blacker Ice", "Black Snowflakes", "Phantoms" and such?

Well...in my opinion they represent....
An interesting note - offspring counts were not what was expected, approximately 70 Albino and 40 non-albino siblings. Robert King theorized these numbers may have been skewed by larval collection methods; a larval trap was used, which he believes pulled in weaker offspring, the stronger ones being able to escape the pull of the trap.

Think about what this means for those of you who collect larvae with a trap, vs. pulling a tile....
image - S'more Clownfish, Fisheye Aquaculture
Two examples of wild-caught Ocellaris that clearly show what appears to be the a
mutation we've come to know as...
images by Reef Builders
Various other takes on the DaVinci Genetic
Top Row - Bali Aquarich. Bottom Right, Sea & Reef Aquaculture, Bottom Left Fisheye Aquaculture
What's with the solid white ones?
What's with the solid white ones?
Fish from Sustainable Aquatics (left) and Sea & Reef Aquaculture (right). Note that some fish show "black ears", a trait that is likely more of a grade than a secondary mutation.
*They're
BENEFICIAL
Hatcheries need them to stay profitable.
My experience breeding Angelfish proved it.
My entire fishroom's finances proved it.
They help finances more altruistic projects.
Species need them to stay in culture.
My hunch - we wouldn't have captive-bred Bincinctus,
were it not for the Spotcinctus variant.s
White Stripe Maroons are back, thanks to Lightning Genes.

Remember this wild fish sketched by Kylie Waldon?
All are "Fancy" Snowflakes, Snowflake Gene added into the Fancy Strain, from Sustainable Aquatics; images by Alpha Aquaculture. What's this "Fancy" Strain?
Fancy Whites, including Premiums out of SA lines; images by Alpha Aquaculture.
Are these Philippines-collected wild Ocellaris carrying the same Fancy genetics in the fish we just saw? (images by RVS Fish World, Inc.
Interspecies Hybrids
A Crossroads
Why Hybrids Suck, #1
Why Hybrids Suck, #2
When we say hybrids in fish breeding, we're really not talking about just any outcross of unrelated fish, but specifically, matings that cross species lines.
The problem we have is simple - we, as aquarists*, don't always know where those species lines are.
*scientists don't always know either...
Since the "species" is the base unit of conservation (including from a legal standpoint), preservation minded individuals strive to identify unique populations that either are, or could be, unique species.
We are at a point where most genetic mutations exist in species with do not show a great deal of geographic variation - Ocellaris is pretty uniform across its entire distribution...
Geographic groups could hide "species within species"*, thus, the need for restricting breeding groups of "species" to known provenance.
...except for the Darwin "Black" Ocellaris.
Snowflake Ocellaris of varying grades; top row Sea & Reef,
Bottom Row Sustainable Aquatics
Top left image - Fisheye Aquaculture
All others - Alpha Aquaculture
"Birdshot" Snowflake Ocellaris from Fisheye Aquaculture.

According to Jonathan Foster, these fish are the offspring of a "plain Jayne" Snowflake and a Wild-Type Ocellaris - 50% come out like this, 50% wild type.

Strong evidence against the "double dose" hypothesis to explain this phenotype.
"FROSTBITE"
Genetic
: YES
Genetic Components
: Snowflake (Sf), Wyoming White (Ww)
Expression
: Complex; appears to be a Co-dominant blending of traits
Likely Genotypes
:
1. (Sf/+ - Ww/+)
2 (Sf/Ww)

Additional Info
:
Frostbites are probably our first phenotype that brings together two distinct, and well known genes. The parentage of a Snowflake, combined with a Wyoming White parent, contributes both a Snowflake gene and a Wyoming White gene to the offspring. Frostbites show the interacting expression of both genes in the resultant fish.

The big question is simply this - do Snowflake and Wyoming White exist on the same locus, or are they separate? Test breeding and careful offspring counts can reveal the answer.

Sustainable Aquatics offers two grades, "Chilled" and "Frozen", relating to the patterning of the fish. Additional breeding work could determine whether these grades represent a continuum of offspring with the same genotype, or perhaps two different genetypes within the offspring.

Developed by
: Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images - Sustainable Aquatics; "Chilled" above, "Frozen" below
If we understand the conservation importance of geographic races / variants (that they free us from the vagaries of arbitrary taxonomic species divisions) , we can work with the genetics that arise within that race/species, which allows for designer genetic play and conservation breeding to safely coexist. PNG Lightning Maroon and Morse Code Maroons are a perfect example.
On the right (B & D), are typical examples of two Victorian Cichlid species that occur sympatrically.
On the left (A & D), examples of these species showing hybrid "degredation";
the result of evironmental interferance causing mate selection causing hybridization in the wild.
C) is a very poor representation of species D), having been muddled with genes from species A), B)
source - Colour variation in cichlid fish: Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences
https://www.scienceopen.com/document/id/76a551ff-f8ac-46b4-b850-d5acde2a0b4d
Can you tell me which specimen is "pure" and which is the hybrid?
Why Hybrids Suck, #3
Can you tell me which fish are "pure species" and which are hybrids?
Black Photon (A. percula "Onyx" X A. ocellaris "Darwin")
A. percula "Onyx"
images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Why Names Matter*
Can you tell me what each fish is called, just by looking?
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. percula
"Onyx")
SNOW ONYX - Hybrid
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin")
BLACK ICE - potential Hybrid
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake", with Fancy Strain as well)
FANCY SNOW
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake")
SNOWFLAKE
all images by Sustainable Aquatics
all images by Sustainable Aquatics
*With Hybrids, the name applied generally becomes synonymous with the lineage behind the cross.

While it's one thing to have multiple names for the same genetic phenotype in mutations (because we can disambiguate through genetic code shorthands), by the time we reach hybrids, the name is the only thing we have.

Thus, the imperitive to have an official registry of hybrid names with FULL lineage, for traceability, transparency, and respecting the accomplishements of others.
Why Create Hybrids?
With genetics, you have to wait for a mutation to pop-up and be capitalized on. It can easily take 2 generations of breeding just to figure out if a aberrant fish offers a heretible gene, and it
might not
. The process of developing a new genetic mutation could easily take 2-10 years, and thousands of dollars.
When hybridizing, particularly primary hybrids (initial crosses between two species) the results are immediate, consistent, and readily reproducible.
"NATURAL" Hybrids (5)
Once again, upon further review, my "if it's not wild don't touch it" mindset fails to hold up; hybrids do occur in the wild, they ARE part of the natural biodiversity.
Man-Made Intraspecific Hybrids (4)
Man-Made Interspecific Hybrids (14)
Interspecies Clownfish hybrids are EASY to accomplish in the grand scheme of things. The pallet only expands when you also include all the genetic mutations and geographic races available.
Genetic Mutations:
Hard Work and Risky
ORA's wild "Jigsaw" White Stripe Maroon was spawned for 2 generations, but never produced any aberrant offspring.
HYBRIDS = CONSISTENT RESULTS
Black Ice Clownfish (A.
ocellaris
"Snowflake" X A.
ocellaris
"Darwin"). Images are: TL, Sustainable Aquatics; TR, Proaquatix; BL Fisheye Aquaculture; BR, ORA
IT'S "EASY"*
VANITY
Because of the "ease", anyone can do it, and anyone can make a name for themselves through it. Thus, why I call still call hybridization "
Lazy Innovation
". Granted, all designer breeding is a bit "lazy" compared to, say, breeding Tangs for the first time.

Hybridization appeals to new breeders who lack the conservation ethic through simple ignorance of the need for it. The new breeder mindset is often "how can I make something new that no one has seen?"

These new breeders seldom if ever stop to ask, "Just because I can do it,
SHOULD
I do it"?
I am not picking on Sanjay Joshi when I include his Photon lineage chart here on a slide about "easy" and anyone can do it! I include his chart to demonstrate how easily, how quickly, and how far, Sanjay was able to extend his hybrid flock.

Sanjay employed excellent record keeping, transparency, and understands the importance of name integrity in hybrids.

Sanjay went about hybridizing in the way that I would want ALL aquarists to approach it.
*I AM NOT PICKING ON SANJAY!
Tomato X Ocellaris Hybrid - WILD, Philippines
Amphiprion frenatus
X
Amphiprion ocellaris
WILD from the Philippines - Clarkii X Tomato Hybrid
images by RVS Fish World Inc.
Tomato X Maroon Hybrid - WILD Philippines
Amphiprion frenatus
X
Premnas biaculeatus
images - RVS Fish World Inc.
Amphiprion clarkii
X
Amphiprion frenatus
main image courtesy Reef Builders, top images RVS Fish World Inc.
A. leucokranos
- Wild PNG
Most Recent Research = HYBRID
(A. chrysopterus X A. sandaracinos) = aka.
A.
x
leucokranos!
A. theillei
- Wild Philippines,
Suspected to be a wild hybrid by some
(
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
)?
(
A. ocellaris
X
A. sandarcinos
?)?
main image by Walter D. Laroque V
BR/BL/TR - RVS Fish World Inc.
TR, David Burdik
image - SEASMART
X
X
X
X
X
X
One small problem with the idea that
A. theillei
is a hybrid with the same parentage as
A. leucokranos

(
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
)...

If
A. theillei
was found in the Philippines, then it probably isn't the hybrid of
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
....
...Because
A. chrysopterus
doesn't seem to occur in the Philippines!
Man-Made Intergeneric Hybrids (3)
These are "hybrids" that under current taxonomy, belong to the same species. However, in my opinion, they are likely full-on interspecific hybids.
"MOCHA"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
While other names have been applied to this hybrid over the years, they've all fallen away. Almost universally, this cross is called a MOCHA.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
"BLACKER ICE"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice"

Additional Info
:
The Blacker Ice is the initial back-cross of a Black Ice to the Darwin Ocellaris parent, a necessary step in the pursuit of creating "Black Snowflakes".

Interestingly, given the genetics of Snowflake, it is possible that non-snowflake offspring were produced, which would be equivalent to a "MOCHA" back-cross to the Darwin parent. Such a hybrid has no name, and what becomes of such fish? Are they passed off as somethign else? This is a weird example of genetic mutations on top of hybridizing creating more "things" requiring "names".

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 25% Ocellaris,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
all images Proaquatix
"S'MORE / BLAKE ICE"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Jonathan Foster actually created and first published this hybrid as the "S'more", beating out other commercial producers by only a matter of weeks. However, the name "Black Ice" has stuck and is the pervasive name for this hybrid.

This cross is essentially a MOCHA, just with the added Snowflake Gene. In truth, any normally patterned fish from the parentage listed would be MOCHAS.

Created by
: Fisheye Aquaculture
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
All photos ORA
"BLACK SNOWFLAKE / Phantom"
Amphiprion ocellaris
images - Black Snowflake, Black Ocellaris (top left), ORA - Blacker Ice bred by Proaquatics - Alpha Aquaculture
X
X
X
Parentage
: VARIES.
Includes:
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice", "Blacker Ice", "Darwin"

Most likely back-cross to quickly get there
:
A. ocellaris
"Blacker Ice" X "Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Some breeders call this a "Phantom" vs. "Black Snowflake". Breeder stories vary, and it seems multiple breeders pursued the same end goal, a Black Ocellaris with the Snowflake Gene. How many generations, and what particular parent sets, aren't publicly disclosed.

What is known is that additional generations of back-crossing were required to "breed out" the "Orange" ocellaris phenotype. These fish represent a great example of true guppification of clownfish - lineage is lost, and the fish becomes more of a "strain" than a traceable hybrid. Invariably, along the way various amounts of throwbacks would have made this more of a selective breeding and grading project.

Created by
: Multiple Sources
Likely Breakdown
: >25% Ocellaris,
< 75% Darwin Ocellaris
X
Crosses between two distinct species within the same genus.
"BLACK PHOTON"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
A unique hybrid; black coloration is intermediate, but the most interesting observation is the Darwin Ocellaris influence on stripe development timing - signficantly faster than a pure Percula.

Joshi also succeeded in creating "Gen 2" (F2) Black Photons from the F1 offspring, proving the fertility of the cross

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: 50% Onyx Percula,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
A. (ocellaris
"Darwin" X
percula
"Onyx")
Top images - Sea & Reef Aquaculture - bottom image Sanjay Joshi
X
"SMOCULARIS"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
SMOCULARIS is basically the same as the Black Photon, with the exception of adding the "Picasso" genetic from the Percula side of the equation. In the originator's case, a high grade Picasso strain was used.

Created by
: Phil Schlanger
Breakdown
: 50% Picasso Percula,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Top Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture, Bottom Image (Smocularis), Naquan (Straightjiggy) Kirkland
X
"WHITE TIPPED"
Parentage:
A. sebae
X
A. polymnus

Additional Info
:
I am unsure whether this was a C-Quest or Proaquatix creation. Joe Lichtenbert produced F2 White Tipped Clownfish from F1, proving that the hybrid was fertile.

Which form of
A. polymnus
used isn't known, but judging by what was currently available at the time, most likely it was the Brown form of the species.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Sebae,
50% Saddleback
A. (polymnus X sebae)
Images: Main Image, White Tipped - Proaquatix. Parental Images, Sustainable Aquatics, Inset Image - Matt Pedersen
X
"PERCULARIS"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
X
A. percula

Additional Info
:
It's such an old hybrid that I actually cannot find any photographs of it to share! These days, all "Percularis" seem to incorporate some sort of designer genetics.

This is a great example of a "bad" hybrid - Percularis are intermediate between the parents, which themselves are already so similar that it was decades before the trade got their identification correct! The offspring can't really look any "better" than the parents, so no good can come from them.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Percula
A. (ocellaris X percula)
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
"SNOWFLAKE BLACK PHOTON"
Parentage:
A.
??? X
A.
???

Additional Info:
Two types of fish have shown up in this cross; fish with, and without, outward Snowflake genetics. In truth, knowing our understanding of Snowflake Genetics, these two varieties are not the same, and the non-snowflake offspring probably deserve a different name.

Created by : Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown : ???,
50% ???
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
A pretty straightforward hybrid. Of course, any fish from this parentage which lacks the Snowflake genetic is still the cross of A. ocellaris X A. percula "Onyx"...but what do we call THIS hybrid genotype? It needs a name.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
:
50% Snowflake Ocellaris,
50% Onyx Percula
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
Parentage:
A.
Black Photon X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
A backcross of the Black Photon to it's Darwin Ocellaris parent.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
:
25% Onyx Percula,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
A.
(Black Photon X
ocellaris
"Darwin")
Top Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
Parentage:
A.
Black Photon

X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
This is the "other" backcross of a Black Photon, this time to the Onyx Percula parent.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
:
25% Onyx Percula,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
"Clarkii X Black Ocellaris"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Almost the same as the last one, this yet another one ORA's surprise hybrids. Note the difference the Darwin Ocellaris parentage makes.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Clarkii,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
A. (clarkii X ocellaris
"Darwin"
)
Images: ORA
X
"Clarkii X Tricinctus"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. tricinctus

Additional Info
:
Another accidental hybrid at ORA, this is one of those "dangerous" ones because on the surface, this fish is strikingly similar to
A. tricinctus
. Get it into the wrong hands with the wrong ID, and someone's Tricinctus breeding project goes off the rails. Look at the example parental versions to see my point...

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Clarkii,
50% Tricinctus
A. (clarkii X tricinctus)
Images: Top left Clarkii, Sustainable Aquatics; Top Right wild Tricinctus, Pacific Island Aquatics;
Main hybrid image, ORA
X
"Tomato X Ocellaris"
Parentage
:
A. frenatus
X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
ORA has documented numerous accidental hybrids. This one is unique in that it's also been seen in the wild, as shown earlier. Could be given a formal name by ORA.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Tomato,
50% Ocellaris
A. (frenatus X ocellaris)
Images: ORA
X
"Clarkii X Ocellaris"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
Another one of ORA's documented "surprise" hybrids, which occured accidentally. ORA would be within their rights to give it an official name.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Clarkii
A. (clarkii X ocellaris)
Images: ORA
X
A. (ocellaris
"Darwin" X
percula
"Picasso")
"DOUBLE BLACK PHONTON"
A.
(Black Photon X
percula
"Onyx")
"HALF BLACK PHONTON"
A. (ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
percula
"Onyx")
"MIDNIGHT"
Genetic : Presumed YES
Expression : Unknown / Undisclosed

Additional Info:
Presumed comparable if not the same as the NAKED Ocellaris; basically a 'MIDNIGHT" Ocellaris is synonymous as a "NAKED Black"...if "Black" ocellaris is in fact just a strain or mutation of A. ocellaris. There is no indication that any Ocellaris / Black Ocellaris crossing was done to create Midnights, which suggests this genetic arose independently in straight Black Lines.

Dominos, Extreme Misbars, are produced by Naked breeding lines; whether they are simply "grades" or unique genetic states remains unknown

Discovered by : ORA in CB Fish
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
Image by Sustainable Aquatics
DOMINO (left) and Extreme Misbar (right); Top Row ORA, Bottom Row Sustainable Aquatics
11-27-2006
4-28-2007
12-29-2006
1-23-2007
MORAL OF THE STORY?
Don't believe everything you see.
Don't make assumptions.

Then again, for all I know, whoever bought the pair now has tons of Half-Black Offspring...?
Second Generation White Tipped Clownfish bred by Joe Lichtenbert / Reef Propagations Inc.
USE YOUR IMAGINATION!
"MIDNIGHT BLACK PHONTON"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Midnight" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
Sanjay Joshi Kicked it up a notch, adding the stripe eliminating "Naked" gene from Black Ocellaris into what is otherwise a Black Photon.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Top Images Sustainable Aquatics, main image Sanjay Joshi
X
A. (ocellaris
"Midnight" X
percula
"Onyx")
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake"X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Years ago, someone created this hybrid and called it "Snowcasso". Then Doni Marie (Woodstock, Doni's Reef) trademarked Snowcasso(TM) as a name for her highest grade Picasso Percula offspring (Doni's broodstock were ORA Picasso Percula). With this hybrid being recently revisted by Bali Aquarich, a new name had to be find given the legal issues created by the trademark, so we now know this fish as Picassnow.

Interesting things might happen depending on the parents used. Het Snowflake, and Het Picasso parents, would actually yield a spread of offspring. Some offspring could lack one, or both of the designer genes, and their appearance would no doubt be different than offspring which inherit both the Snowflake and the Picasso genetics. It's presumed that the fish we call Picassnow are showing both. A fish which only gets the Snowflake Gene might be thought of as a Snow Onyx...a fish with only the Picasso gene would represent a Percularis hybrid that hasn't been named. What happens to all these "other fish" that don't hit the "Picassnow" phenotype and genotype?

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Snowflake Ocellaris,
50% Picasso Ocellaris
Images: Bali Aquarich
X
"SNOW ONYX"
A. (ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
percula
"Onyx")
"PICASSNOW"
A. (ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
percula
"Picasso")
NOTE - only 50% of the offspring of this hybrid have the snowflake gene. The others are lack it, thus representing a different genotype and thus deserving of their own, non-snowflake moniker.
Images: Bali Aquarich
X
"WHITE KNIGHT"
A. (
Snow Onyx

" X
percula
"Picasso")
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake"X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Another twist on the 2nd generation hybrids, this is a back cross on some levels (many Picasso lines carry Onyx genetics already).

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 25% Snowflake Ocellaris, 25% Onyx Percula
50% Picasso Percula
In the Clownfish world, we only have two genera,
Premnas
and
Amphiprion
. So in order to get a hybrid that crosses genus lines, it's going to have to incorporate some sort of Maroon Clownfish.
In the Orchid world, Intregeneric hybrids are given a "made up genus" which combines the genera of the parental species.
Premprion
?
Premphiprion
?
Premnion
?
Premnasion
?
Premnamphion
?
"COCOA"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
The first of the "Maroon" X Ocellaris type hybrids.




Created by
: Proaquatix
Breakdown
: 50% WS Maroon,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
"Darwin"
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics; bottom image Chris Turnier
X
"BLOOD ORANGE"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe" X
A. ocellaris

Additional Info
:
Another primary hybrid, this one created by ORA.




Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% GSM,
50% Ocellaris
Top Images: Sustainable Aquatics; main image - ORA
X
"MAI TAI"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"

X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
The third "Ocellaris type X Maroon" hybrid. Actually was first done by a reefer in Thailand, named by another breeder later on, now commercialized by Sustainable Aquatics.

Created by
: "Vekin"
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
All Images Sustainable Aquatics - more on Vekin at http://www.reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2145533
X
These are the "Birdshot" Snowflake parents at Fisheye Aquaculture.
"YOUR NAME HERE"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
It's so obvious at this point, this is the last of the 4 primary hybrids between the "ocellaris twin species" and the "maroon twin species". Someone gets to do it and name it! YOU?

Created by
: IMAGINATION
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
"Darwin"
?
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