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Transcript of Semantics
Among Words What is Meaning? Semantic Relation
Involving Sentences Paraphrase Entailment Contradiction
The horse threw the rider
The rider was thrown by the horse My Brother is single
My Brother isn’t married Mary doesn’t like fast food
Mary eats hot dogs every day Componential Analysis Semantic components
Analyzes the meaning of certain types of nouns. Denotation Literal meaning Extension The set of all things to which a word or phrase refers to.
Indicates the range of applicability by naming the particular objects that it denotes. Connotation Associated meaning Synonymy same meaning Polysemy A word that has tow o more related meanings Antonymy opposite meaning The Nature of Meaning Bird - Animal Snake - Animal Example Peace - Freedom Danger Example The Red dress is in the laundry
In the laundry is the red dress The house is clean
The house isn’t dirty David Works in a factory
David is unemployed i.e. The extension of ship embraces
such things as cargo ships, passenger ships, battleships, and sailing ships Intension and An intension is any property, quality or state of affairs connoted by a word, phrase or other symbol.
In case of a word, it is often implied by its definition.
Also refer to the complete set of meanings or properties that are implied by a concept. the intension of “ship” as a substantive is “vehicle for conveyance on water,” Example: Example: man = [+ male], [+ mature] or woman = [– male], [+ mature] or boy = [+ male], [– mature] or girl = [– male] [– mature] or child = [+/– male] [– mature] Example Context Youth - Adolescent
Automobile - Car
Big - Large Example hot/cold good/bad
strong/weak happy/sad short/tall Homophony and definition of the word "cracker" from the Oxford English An instrument for cracking or crushing something.
A thin hard biscuit. (Now chiefly in U.S.)
A cracking plant (see CRACK v. 23). Example Example Same sound
Two o more words with the same pronunciation Claus Claws clause /kl/ /klz/ /santklz/