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Westward Expansion SC 4-5

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Betsy Masters

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of Westward Expansion SC 4-5

Wilderness Trail Daniel Boone - Crossed Cumberland Gap to Kentucky
-Trail= "Wilderness Trail"
-Trail became first National Road
-Trails were expansions of Indian Trails
-Created first Settlement west of Appalachian Trail
-Purchased much of the land in Kentucky
that was taken from Cherokee Major Expeditions Daniel Boone
Lewis and Clark
Zebulon Pike Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clark -documented land of the Lousiana Purchase
-establish American Claims to Pacific Northwest
-Pacific Northwest= Oregon Country
-Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson
-Sent to Explore and Map area to Pacific Ocean
-people were stil looking for Northwest Passage Louisiana Purchase -stretched from New Orleans @ mouth of Mississippi River to present day Idaho and as far North as Canada. Westward Expansion SC SS 4-5 Indicator 4-5.1: Summarize the major expeditions that played a role in westward expansions including those of Daniel Boone, Lewis and Clark, and Zebulon Pike. -Did not bring Slavery to new Western World
-Opened area for further settlement which eventually brought slavery
-Published reports of the land so people would know the area Sacajawea Oregon Territory Lewis and Clark made claim to this area Lewis and Clark also reported:
- plants and animals discovered
-Native Americans found in the area Zebulon Pike -Located and explored upper Regions of the Mississippi River
-Made treaties with the Natives
-Mapped and claimed land for the US (land to the Pacific Ocean and up Oregon Country
-Explored the Southwest into Spanish Territory
-Pike's Peak named after him. Indicator 4-5.2: Explain the motivations and methods of migrants and immigrants, who moved West, including economic opportunities, the availability of rich land, and the country’s belief in Manifest Destiny. Pioneers Pioneers moved into new territories before and after they were acquired by the
United States government. Their settlements helped to initiate and establish American claims to these lands that were also claimed by other nations and Native Americans. Manifest Destiny Americans began to justify their westward expansion with the idea of Manifest Destiny

What is Manifest Destiny?
a God given right to expand and claim lands from coast to coast. Motives for Pioneer Exploration 1. Nationalism
2. Personal Opportunity
3. Economic Opportunity
-Trade
-Furs(trapped, trade, sell to Europeans)
-Inexpensive rich Farm land (farmers became self-sufficient)
-Southerns moved to Texas (cotton)
-small towns along the way grew.
-Gold Rush brought Migrant Workers California Gold Rush Brought migrants to the West
Migrants wanted to get rich quick and then return home
Miners needed food and supplies
Merchants followed miners
Some wanted to settle there.

Mormons- wanted religious freedom so they settled in Utah

People settled the plains later for the same reason What was it like on the trail? Hardships-
- Broken axels
-accidents
-bad weather
-rough river crossings
-limited food supply
-sickness
-bandits
-unfriendly Native Americans
Hard on Women and Children
Most traveled on Wagon Trains
degree of Cooperation
lack of conflict
weather Indicator 4-5.3: Explain the purpose, location, and impact of key United States acquisitions in the first half of the nineteenth century, including the Louisiana Purchase, the Florida Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican Cession. Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson made inquiries about buying land around New Orleans to assist farmers along the Mississippi River who needed to transport their products downriver to the French port of New Orleans and store them before export [called right of deposit].
It was too costly to transport the goods across the Appalachian Mountains so Jefferson’s foreign ministers were authorized to offer France 10 million dollars for the port city that controlled the Mississippi.
However, before they could make the offer, France surprised Jefferson’s foreign ministers by offering to sell the entire area of Louisiana [Louisiana Purchase-1803] which encompassed the territory west of the Mississippi River to present day Idaho and north to Canada for 15 million dollars (less than 3 cents per acre) nearly doubling the size of the United States at the time. The Florida Purchase [Adams-Onis Treaty] was the result of friction between Spain and the United States over boundary lines of the Louisiana Territory. Relations with Native Americans also impacted the United States’ desire for this land (4-5.4). Spain sold Florida to the United States (1819) in exchange for 5 million dollars and a clear southern boundary between the Louisiana Territory and New Spain at the 42nd parallel. Oregon Territory The United States claimed the Oregon Territory based on the explorations of Lewis and Clark (4-5.1). Britain also claimed the area, while Spain and Russia had already relinquished their earlier claims.

Initially, Americans in search of economic opportunity in the fur trade moved into the area. The farmers that followed the fur traders wanted to be part of the United States. After much negotiation, the Oregon Treaty was a compromise with Great Britain so as not to go to war (“54-40 or fight”) with two different countries simultaneously (“annexation of Texas” which led to the Mexican War).

Although some Americans wanted to claim land to the 54 40’ parallel, most American settlements were south of the claim line and thus the compromise northern boundary of the United States was set at the 49th parallel in 1846, an extension westward of the 1818 treaty border boundary already between Canada and the United States. Oregon
Territory Texas Annexation The annexation of Texas came nine years after the Texan War for Independence from Mexico.
Prior to Texan independence, American southerners had accepted Mexico’s invitations to move into the Texas territory. These cotton planters agreed to become Mexican citizens, convert to Catholicism, and to follow Mexican law (with an exemption to allow slavery) in order to have access to more fertile land for cotton. When a new dictatorial Mexican government came into power in Mexico and enforced its control over Texas, including re-outlawing slavery, Texans rebelled and fought a war to win their independence. Texans then wanted to become part of the United States. At first, the United States Congress would not annex Texas because it would upset the balance of slave and free states. As a result, Texas was an independent country for nine years. When James K. Polk won the presidency in 1844, running on the platform of Manifest Destiny in both Texas and Oregon the United States Congress finally annexed Texas. Mexican Cession - territory that the United States acquired as a result of winning the Mexican War.
The Mexican War was the result of Manifest Destiny, the desire for Pacific ports, and the annexation of Texas. -US wanted a port on the Pacific coast(California) in the Mexican territory.
-President Polk tried to buy this land, but the Mexicans would not sell.
-After Texas was annexed, the United States sent American troops into an area on the border of Texas that the Mexican government also claimed as their own. Shots were fired and the Mexican War began (1846-48). The United States invaded Mexico and defeated the Mexican army at the disputed border, and won the war by taking the capital city.

Americans also “assisted” the Mexican citizens in California in declaring their independence from Mexico, as well [the Bear Flag Republic.] The treaty that ended the Mexican War ceded Mexican territory in what is now New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah, and Nevada to the United States in return for 15 million dollars.

The Mexican Cession (1848) gave the United States access to Pacific ports and the soon to be discovered gold fields of California. Students should be able to identify Texas and the Mexican Cession on a map. Indicator 4-5.4: Summarize how territorial expansion, related land policies, and specific legislation affected Native Americans, including the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Indian Removal Act. -Territorial expansion and related land policies had a very negative impact on Native Americans.

-As more settlers moved farther west, they took more Native American land and created conflict with the Native American tribes.

-The United States government exercised its power to make treaties and to force tribes to move from their ancestral lands. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed new lands to organize as territories and later as states when their population of white settlers reached a certain number. The ordinance also provided for public schools and outlawed slavery in the region. The new American government under the Constitution continued with these ordinances. . This region later became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and could not allow slavery. This was the first time the national government had taken a stand against the spread of slavery that was motivated by the ideas of the Declaration of Independence that “all men are created equal.” Although the Northwest Ordinance promised that the “utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians, their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent,” because the Land Ordinance and the Northwest Ordinance encouraged westward expansion, Native Americans were forced to give up their lands and move farther west. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a law passed by the United States Congress and signed by President Andrew Jackson. It provided land and money the president could use to enter treaties with the Native American nations in which the tribes agreed to leave their lands east of the Mississippi and move west. This held especially true of the so-called “Five Civilized Tribes” of the southeastern United States. Tribal resistance to American encroachment was answered with military-forced takeover. Having no choice, some Native American tribes moved farther west voluntarily. Other tribes, such as the Cherokee nation, attempted to live in harmony with the American settlers by adopting many American customs, including a written language and governmental system and even the plantation system with slavery. The Cherokee tried to resist removal by taking their case to the Supreme Court. Even though the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee had the right to keep their land, President Andrew Jackson ignored the court’s ruling and used the army to force the Cherokee to move from their homes in the Appalachian Mountains across the Mississippi River to present-day Oklahoma, then designated Indian Territory, on what is called “The Trail of Tears.” The use of contract labor to insure the move was accomplished earned the moniker as roughly one fourth of the population died on what evolved into a forced foot march during the winter. The Seminole tribe tried a different approach, going to war in Florida over their refusal to evacuate and transfer themselves to reservations in designated areas. Because the Seminoles lost, many were captured and forced to move to Indian Territory. Even though the Native Americans were promised reservations in the west, settlers and the military often broke treaties. White settlers wanted Native American lands because of the gold, silver, or rich grazing land found there and this process was continually repeated as land was settled. This caused conflicts between settlers and Native Americans that later led to a series of Indian wars. These conflicts were sometimes used as an excuse by soldiers and settlers to massacre Native Americans. Native Americans resisted until they were defeated and forced onto reservations in the period after the Civil War. Indicator 4-5.5: Explain how the Missouri Compromise, the fugitive slave laws, the annexations of Texas, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision affected the institution of slavery in the United States and its territories. As Americans moved west, the United States added
more territories raising the issue of whether or not to allow slavery in these new states. The national government passed legislation that affected the institution of slavery in the territories. By the time of the Missouri Compromise in 1820, there was much controversy over slavery. The cotton gin had been invented and southern states were even more dependent on slave labor than they had been at the time of the American Revolution. Northern states were gradually emancipating their slaves. Some northerners wanted slaves in Missouri to be gradually emancipated as well. Southern states worried that they would lose power in Congress if there were more free states than there were slave states. Representatives of the free northern states outnumbered the representatives from the slave states in the House of Representatives because of the population increase due to immigration, so the South was even more determined to hold on to equal representation in the Senate. The Compromise tried to avoid future controversy by prohibiting slavery in the Louisiana Territory, north of 36 30’ latitude that was the southern boundary of Missouri. The admission of Missouri, which precipitated the national slavery and balance-of-power questions, was balanced by the simultaneous admission of Maine as a free state, setting a precedent for the admission of states that averted sectional strife by balancing power between the numbers of slave and free states and therefore the numbers of senators until the admission of California in 1850. The annexation of Texas was delayed for nine years because the Republic of Texas wanted to be admitted to the United States as a slave state. Texas was finally annexed as a slave state in 1845. The resulting Mexican War led to more controversy over slavery. Some northerners wanted Congress to declare that all parts of the territory that was from Mexico (the Mexican cession) would be “free soil.” That is, that slavery would be prohibited in this region. Southerners wanted the area to be open to slavery. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act were the result of California applying to be admitted to the union. After the discovery of gold in 1849, people flocked to California to get rich quick. They did not want to compete with slave owners who would use their slaves to mine for gold. Because Californians wanted their state to also be “free soil” they applied for admission as a free state. This would have upset the balance of slave and free states. The Compromise allowed
-California to be a free state but also outlawed the slave trade, but not slavery itself, in the nation’s capital, Washington, DC.
-Allowed the remainder of the Mexican Cession to decide whether or not the residents wanted to be a slave or free state through a vote, a concept known as popular sovereignty.
Southerners were also delighted with a new Fugitive Slave Law that gave them more opportunity to have their escaped slaves caught and returned to their masters in the South. This last provision caused much controversy as free African Americans were required to provide necessary proof or run the risk of being taken and sold in the South, a scenario made worse by unscrupulous slave catchers who often ignored or destroyed proffered proof. In defiance of this latter provision, many Northern states passed personal liberty laws that legalized disobedience of the fugitive slave law. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) was also the result of westward expansion. The Kansas Territory was in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory and therefore, according to the Missouri Compromise, it could not be a slave state. However, some politicians wanted to build a transcontinental railroad through Kansas and they needed to get southern support. The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the 36 30’ slavery line in the Louisiana Purchase of the Missouri Compromise. It allowed people in these territories to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders through the concept of ‘popular sovereignty.’ The concept, however, had not taken into account people’s misguided willingness to move to a territory temporarily for the express purpose of being there to influence the vote called “squatter sovereignty.” In order to affect that vote, northern abolitionists (free-staters) and southern slave owners (slave-staters) moved into the Kansas Territory until the election and violence predictably erupted between towns purposefully populated by opposing camps. Soon their fighting led people to call the area “Bleeding Kansas.” The Dred Scott decision (1858) was a test case taken by the Supreme Court, which was comprised of a majority of proslavery Southerners, to settle the controversy over slaves taken or escaped to areas where slavery was not legal. Dred Scott was a slave whose master had taken him into free territory. With the help of northern abolitionists, Scott sued his master for his freedom claiming ‘once free, always free.’ The Supreme Court decided that African Americans were not citizens of the United States, even if they had been born in the United States, and therefore they had no right to sue in the Supreme Court. Furthermore, the court ruled that slaves were instead property and they had no rights at all and could be taken anywhere in the United States. By extension, this ruling meant that slavery was legal throughout the United States. This concept affected all legislation that Congress had passed regarding the expansion of slavery into the western territories and states beginning with the Missouri Compromise. Instead of settling the controversy over slavery, the Dred Scott decision fanned the flames of sectional discord further. Northerners saw the ruling as denying them the right to outlaw slavery in their states as well as in the territories through popular sovereignty, thus creating an entire country in which slavery was legalized and democracy was limited. Southerners, on the other hand, were overjoyed. Sectional distrust and discord was at its zenith at this point when radical abolitionist John Brown (infamous after Kansas) reappeared, this time in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.
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