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Nehashree Tatavarthi

on 13 June 2015

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Transcript of Ecosystem

What is ecosystem?
What are Producers?
What are Consumers?
Consumers are organisms of an ecological food chain that receive energy by consuming other organisms. These organisms are formally referred to as heterotrophs which include animals, bacteria and fungus. Consumers are categorized into 3 groups :

Primary consumers: they are usually herbivores
Secondary consumers: they are mainly carnivores
Tertiary consumers: they are mainly omnivores

Consumers dominate most of a food chain. Consumers have important roles to play with the ecosystem such as balancing the food chain by keeping animal populations at a reasonable number. Without proper balance, an ecosystem can collapse and cause the decline of all effected species.

What are Decomposers?
Man made disturbances to the Ecosystem
Ecosystem is a distinct area in the biosphere that is made up of living things. It consists of rocks, soil, the surface of ground and air. Ecosystems powered by sun and recycle materials such as the chemicals in plants can be large as rainforests/ desert or as small as a drop of rain water.

Balance in ecosystem
An ecosystem is balanced when both abiotic and biotic factors are balanced.
It means that nutrients and energy are recycled efficiently without any interruption.
This balance may be disturbed due to the introduction of new species, the sudden death of some species, natural hazards or man-made causes.

also known as anthropogenic
Natural disturbances to the Ecosystem
Managing Interdependence- Ecosystem
• Producers are those organisms that can prepare their food on their own with the help of water, sunlight, Carbon Dioxide and chlorophyll.

• Example- Plants, algae(seaweed)

• Producers are very important in the food chain. They provide food to organisms who can’t prepare food on their own.
• Producers are responsible in producing energy in the ecosystem.

Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, carry out the natural process of decomposition.

Like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic, meaning that they use organic substrates to get their energy, carbon and nutrients for growth and development.

Decomposers are important because they help get rid of the dead material in the environment. Also breaking down material, they help fertilize the soil and put nutrients in the Earth.

Why are Decomposers important?
Decomposers consume plants and animals and decomposes them (reduces them to simpler forms of matter).
Some of the most common decomposers are bacteria, worms, slugs, snails, and fungi like mushrooms.
Plants prepare their food by a process called photosynthesis.

Carbon dioxide plus water plus energy from sunlight gives glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen

The word ‘photo’ means light and ‘synthesis’ means combination of components to prepare something.

Photosynthesis is the process by which chlorophyll present in the leaves/green parts of the plant converts inorganic raw materials as carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen in the presence of light energy (sunlight).

Plants have organelles called plastids. Chloroplast is one type of plastid. Chloroplast contains a green pigment called chlorophyll.

Chlorophyll helps to trap the sunlight and convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose.

A disturbance is any event that causes disruption to the current state of the ecosystem.

Natural Disturbances-
They are caused by the force of nature including weather and geology.

EG-Tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, even diseases and long term freezing.

After a natural disaster impacts an ecosystem, there can be devastation. Plants die, animals are displaced from their former homes and tracts of land may have no wildlife at all. But these situations are temporary.

These occur due to human intent or error. This results in loss of life or property.

EG- Terrorism, global warming, biodiversity, pollution, nuclear bombs and extinction
Humans are casual agents of natural disturbances.

Though natural disturbances occur by themselves, their impact and frequency can be increased by our activities. Here are a few examples-

Mining and digging in an area for a long period of time can result in minor earthquakes.

Non- engineered construction, along with deforestation can cause maximum damage.
Role of producers as only organisms to trap solar radiation
Almost all life on Earth relies on solar energy for food, either directly or indirectly.

Producers rely directly on solar energy. They absorb sunlight and convert it into nutrients through a process called photosynthesis.
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