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Copy of Scientific Revolution

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Janeen Saunders

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
What happened to encourage studies of science?
Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus identified the concept of a heliocentric solar system
He found out that the sun, instead of the earth was the center of the solar system.
He also believed that the size of each planet's orbit depended on its distance from the sun.
In the early 1500's he moved to the Frombork Cathedral Chapter and he ended up designing and applying a complex mathematical system to prove his theory.
His observations eventually led to inaccurate conclusions such as his assumption that the planets' orbits occurred in a perfect circle.
In 1514, he completed a written work called
which was a 40-page manuscript that summarized his system with mathematical and astronomical proof.
Nicolaus' observations caused controversy since people said he did not give enough proof as to why the sun was the center.
His model was considered heretical since it was contrary to the Church's teachings.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei was an Italian mathematics professor and scientist
whose observations laid the foundation for modern physics and astronomy.
Isaac Newton 1643-1727
How It Has Impacted Us
The Scientific Revolution has made the world better and more scientifically advanced. Some ways the revolution has impacted us today include:

It has made our experiments more reliable.
Medical procedures have become more effective.
We have a better understanding of our world works, especially in the field of astronomy.
We still use many of the inventions they created during that time so we can continue to make scientific discoveries and improvements.
Rene Descartes
Francis Bacon
New Model of the Universe
How does this redefine the understanding of the universe?
Constructed an
improved telescope

(he is often falsely credited with creating the telescope.)
Discovered that the moon was not flat or smooth.
Discovered the moons of Jupiter.
Designed the first pendulum clock.
Made major contributions to the fields of physics, astronomy, cosmology, mathematics and philosophy.
"Galileo." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
"Galileo Galilei." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
The Scientific Revolution was a time of scientific innovation.
Many new observations and achievements were made in the areas of science and astronomy.
The modern day scientific method was made during this era.
Other achievements that were made concerned the ideas of gravity, skeletal and muscular parts of the body, and the orbits of the planets.
"Nicolaus Copernicus." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 25 Feb. 2015.
Sailus, Christopher. "The Scientific Revolution: Definition, History, Causes & Leaders." Education-portal.com. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
Impact on Astronomy
Before the Scientific Revolution, the world’s basic understanding of the universe was based off of Aristotle’s work of the fourth century.
Aristotle’s view on the universe was that the Earth was the center of the universe.
The first person to publicly challenge these accepted ideas was Nicolaus Copernicus, a scientist who made many major contributions to astronomy. He argued that the sun was the center of the universe, not the earth.
The scientific revolution was also the time period when the improtelescope was invented, changing the course of science dramatically. This invention helped Galileo discover the four moons of Jupiter, debunking Aristotle’s previous belief that Jupiter was embedded in an impenetrable crystal sphere.
It was also discovered during the scientific revolution that the moon had craters and the same side of it always faced the Earth.

Cock, Bretta. "Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution." Humanities II World History Astronomy in the Scientific Revolution Comments. N.p., 2 Dec. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.
Link to Exploration and Technology
Connection to the Renaissance
Scientific Method
on Anatomy and Biology
Impact on the Enlightenment
How does this affect modern day sciences?
End of superstitions
The Scientific Revolution had a large impact on the Enlightenment and it was one of the main causes of why it happened.
What was the Enlightenment?
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement, mainly focusing on politics and the economy, that occurred during the 18th century.
It stimulated from the Scientific Revolution.
The Scientific Revolution had great success in understanding the physical world through the processes of logic and observation. This led people to wonder if there could be similar progress made in the areas of politics, economy, and social relations.
This time of reorientation came to be known as the Enlightenment.
The Scientific Revolution made many accomplishments in the area of science that still affect our modern day sciences. The works of the people involved in the Scientific Revolution helped towards the development of technology and natural sciences today. Some ways that this event has an affect on our modern day sciences are:
Bacon's scientific method helped us to make experiment forms more reliable.
Newton's Laws helped and provided us with information on how our world and universe work.
People are now able to harness power from natural resources using the laws that were developed during the revolution.
Medical procedures are more effective thanks to the medical breakthroughs of the revolution.
With the discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution, new advances have been made in the areas of physics, mathematics, anatomy, biology, and chemistry.
"The Enlightenment." The Enlightenment. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
"The Scientific Revolution and Its Impact." The Scientific Revolution and Its Impact. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
Religion came into question as people began to search for more scientific explanations to the universe.
The belief in mystical creatures causing what happens in the world came to an end.
Many people began to conduct experiments on how the world works rather than take the church's word for it.
Many were suppressed for being "heretics".
Many, however, continued to search for answers and became skeptical until they performed their own experiments.
The Age of Exploration and the Scientific Revolution were two important time periods that coincided with each other. Discovery is the force that led to the Scientific Revolution.
The Scientific Revolution was then a time of knowledge and understanding. During the Age of Exploration, many inventions were made to try and better the many arising navigational problems.
Some inventions included:


Then, during the Scientific Revolution,
scientists used these inventions to have a better understanding of their world.
Galileo, a philosopher and astronomer, used a technologically advanced telescope that he invented to observe the craters of the moon. He also discovered rings and moons of other planets.

"Scientific Achievements and The Age of Exploration « Humanities II – World History." Humanities II World History Scientific Achievements and The Age of Exploration Comments. Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
The Renaissance was a time period in European history that was marked as a time of cultural growth. There were major changes for people living in Europe.
Many people today appreciate the distinctive arts, intellectual achievements, and some scientific advances and improvements that were made.
With the Renaissance becoming more popular, interest sparked in the understanding of the physical world.
Artists and thinkers were inspired by the geographical exploration that was discovered during the Renaissance. The geographical explorations provided new areas of study and experimentation.
The artists and thinkers were inspired to know and portray reality which caused a dramatic rise in scientific exploration which is now referred to as the Scientific Revolution.
"What Was the Renaissance?" WiseGEEK. Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
"The Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)." SparkNotes. SparkNotes. Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
Many scientists disagree on when the revolution actually started and ended but most agree that the impact on the new collective worldview and mindset of Europeans was unlike anything Europe had experienced before.
The Scientific Revolution is said to have "enlightened" the Dark Ages which was an era that was known to be intellectually dormant after the fall of the Roman Empire.
There were many inventions made during the Age of Exploration to try and help the many arising navigational issues. Some inventions made during this time included the thermometer, barometer, clock, and microscope. Scientists then used these inventions to try and make a better understanding of their world and how it worked.
The Renaissance was another time period of European history which encouraged studies of science.
During the Renaissance, many intellectual, cultural, and art achievements were made. As the Renaissance kept growing, more people wanted to better understand their physical world as well. Scientists were then inspired to understand and portray their world and how it worked.
"The Scientific Revolution: Definition, History, Causes & Leaders." Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
"The Scientific Revolution and Its Impact." The Scientific Revolution and Its Impact. Web. 1 Mar. 2015.
Established physicist and mathematician
, and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution. He made discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics.
In 1687, he published his
most acclaimed work
, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
), which has been called the single most influential book on physics
One of the first to comprehend early laws of motion
- I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
- II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
- III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
His discoveries led to many breakthroughs in the fields of science. His works are still taught today in mathematics and physics.
There were many breakthroughs in human anatomy, such as learning how blood circulates through the body.
The discovery of oxygen and early blood transfusions also contributed to an early comprehension of anatomy and biology.
The invention of the microscope allowed for people to see red blood cells, bacteria, and protozoa.
These discoveries in anatomy and biology allowed for many advances in medicine and saved many lives.
During the Scientific Revolution,
people began to see the universe in a new way.
People began to see the universe closer to the way we see it today.
There was less superstition and intelligence was beginning to be held in a higher regard.
The possibility of the universe being created on its own, without a divine intervention, was slowly starting to sink in. The idea of any mythology having anything to do with the universe was completely gone.
"I think; therefore I am."
Rene Descartes was a philosopher and mathematician whose famous quote, "I think; therefore I am,"
defined the starting point of understanding human existence.
Known as the Father of Modern Philosophy
Introduced Cartesian geometry to the world (using coordinates)
Developed a factual understanding of rainbows
Brought on the idea of methodological skepticism
, or Cartesian doubt, which basically teaches everyone to be their own philosopher.

Rene is significant because of his major contributions to the world of mathematics and philosophy.
His ideas brought on new understandings of the world and taught everyone to question the world as a philosopher would.
"René Descartes." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 01 Mar. 2015.
The picture to the left represents the "New Model of the Universe" otherwise known as the heliocentric model.
This rediscovered model brought on the idea of our universe not revolving around Earth, but around the Sun instead.
This model also observes the motion of the planets by describing them as orbiting around the sun in a circular shape and rotating on their own axes.
This new model conflicted with the Church, which Copernicus expected, therefore it was condemned.
Wudka, Jose. "The Copernican Revolution." The Copernican Revolution. N.p., 24 Sept. 1998. Web. 01 Mar. 2015.

Francis Bacon had three main goals. One was to uncover the truth. The next was to serve his church and the last goal was to serve his country.
Bacon insisted that experiments must be consistently repeated before truth can be known.
Bacon's philosophical work marks a very amazing breakthrough for the study of the health and sick world.
Francis Bacon is sometimes called the father of modern day science.His method was often called the Baconian method.
His method was about inquiring many procedures and then asking how people could prove their discovery and how they did the procedure.
The main purpose of the scientific method: It became a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.

The steps of the scientific method include:
1. Ask a question.
2. Do a background research.
3. Construct a hypothesis.
4. Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment.
5. Analyze your data and draw a conclusion.
6. Communicate your results.
Redd, Nola Taylor. "Galileo Galilei: Biography, Inventions & Other Facts." Space.com. N.p., 8 May 2012. Web. 01 Mar. 2015.
"Isaac Newton Biography." Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 23 Feb. 2015. <http://www.biography.com/people/isaac-newton-9422656>.
"The Rise of Scientific Medicine: The Scientific Revolution." Planetseed.com. Schlumberger Excellence in Education Development (SEED), Inc., 2015. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <http://www.planetseed.com/relatedarticle/rise-scientific-medicine-scientific-revolution>
The Scientific Revolution." Planetseed.com. Schlumberger Excellence in Education Development (SEED), Inc., 2015. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <http://www.planetseed.com/relatedarticle/rise-scientific-medicine-scientific-revolution>.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
German mathematician, astronomer,
and astrologer
What he did:
•an unorthodox Protestant
•a follower of Copernicus
•a brilliant mathematician and scientist who
discovered that the solar system’s planets follow elliptical paths
, not circular paths
•an astrologer, whose horoscopes were sought out as among the best available
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