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Transcript of Epithelial Tissue
-Function: protection, secretion, absorption, moving of mucus (by ciliated columnar epithelium)
-single layer of cells (many have modified structure-3 kinds) Simple Columnar Transitional Stratified
Squamous simple squamous Classified by: Function Membranous Epithelium in all the glands GLANDular
Epithelium Epithelial Tissue Pseudostratified
Columnar Simple Cuboidal Stratified
Cuboidal/Columnar By:Sierra Polzin Epithelial arises from three germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm, but mostly from the ectoderm layer. Germ Layers -covers the body and some of it parts
-serous cavities (ex. pleural)
-vessels (ex. blood vessels)
-tracts (ex. digestive tract) -located in the alveoli of the lungs
-line the blood and lymphatic vessels
-on the surface layer of the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
-classification: squamous cells are
-a single, thick layer
-This cell is scale-like in appearance.
-Function as mediators of filtration and diffusion, simple and build, it lets easy movement of small molecules through it -located: urinary bladder, urethra, superior urethra, kidneys, gland ducts of the prostate and it is found in body areas that are subjected to stress and tension
-accommodate fluctuation of volume of the liquid in an organ or tube and protects against the caustic effects of urine, permits stretching.
-Composed of multiple layers of epithelial cells which contract and expand -Unique Facts
-As the tension increases, the epithelium sheet is expanded, the number of the observed cell layers decrease, and the cell shape changes from cubical to squamous in appearance.
-When the bladder fills, the tissue actually compresses and the cells become stretched, and they appear to be flat, irregular, and squamous. -a stratified type that can be confused with stratified squamous
-The name transitional comes from the ability of this epithelium to accommodate stretching in the urinary tract as fluid pressures vary
-The large, ovoid surface cells are a key attribute of this epithelium type. -Location
surface of the skin (epidermis) surface of the mucous membrane lining the mouth and esophagus
protection (protects the body from mechanical and chemical injury and also from invading bacteria and other disease causing microorganisms)
Stratified squamous is classified under squamous. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
outer parts of your body
built to be water proof and to be tough
composed of tightly packed dead cells filled with protein keratin
The skin is especially tough on the palms of your hands and the bottoms of your feet.
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
on the most slippery areas of your body
- ex. esophagus and mouth -Location
-Ducts and tubules of many organs, (Ex. exocrine glands)
-In parts of the eyes, thyroids, brain, lungs and kidneys
-Ovaries and testes
-Secretion; absorption. Ex. Lines the surface of various ducts of various glands and organs, simple cuboidal cells are able to provide a layer of protection from abrasion, foreign particles, invading bacteria and excessive water loss to the underlying tissue
-Of one layer of cuboidal cells resting on a basement membrane.
-Simple, single layer cell
-Classified as cuboidal; cells have the same height and width
-The nucleus is spherical and is found in the center of the cell -Unique facts
-From the top view simple cuboidal looks like eggs sunny side up.
-The tissue is often called “Pavement Epithelium” because it looks like pavement.
-The cells are large but quite thin.
-It covers the ducts of many glands; salivary, thyroid, pancreas and liver.
-Can withstand more trauma than simple squamous epithelia. -Lines the air passages of respiratory system and certain segments of the male reproductive system
-They sometimes overlap each other you think that it is 2 layers, but it is actually one because all of the columns connect to the membrane
-The cilia protects and cleans the tissue from mucus getting in. -CLASSIFICATION
-Stratified Cuboidal: Cells are cube-shaped and have more cytoplasm
-Stratified Columnar: Cells are higher than they are wide; narrow and cylindrical
- Stratified which means cells are layered one on another -FUNCTIONS
-protection is the most important function of the epithelial tissue
-this tissue is very tough
-protects body from mechanical/chemical injury,invading bacteria and other diseases -LOCATION
-Ducts of the sweat glands, lining of the pharynx, covering portions of the epiglottis, lining portions of the male urethra
-not made up of more than 3-4 layers
-prominent nucleus -based on cell shape and layers of cells to differentiate between the subtypes of epithelial tissues -Protection: Protection is one of the most important functions of membranous epithelium. It is tough and impermeable epithelial covering of the skin and protects the body from physical and chemical injury.
-Sensory functions: Epithelial structures used for sensory functions are found in the skin, nose, eyes, and ears.
-Secretion: Glandular epithelium is made for secretory activities and these include: hormones, mucus, digestive juices, and sweat.
-Absorption: The membranous epithelium of the stomach and the respiratory tract makes it possible for nutrients to be absorbed and for the exchange of respiratory gases between air in the lungs and the blood.
-Excretion: The epithelial lining of the kidney tubules makes urine possible. Classification:
-Pseudostratified: false appearance of layering
-Columnar: higher than they are wide Exocrine Glands Endocrine Glands -discharge secretion products into ducts (channels)
-saliva discharged into duct that transports it to the mouth - ductless glands Unique fact:
-Urethritis: inflammation in the tissues of the urethra. Urethritis can result from injury and allergy or can present as a result of bacterial or viral infection.
-sex with multiple partners
-prior history of sexually transmitted disease,
-being a man 20 to 35 years old
-being a women of reproductive age - discharges secretion to the body - pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands -Location: glands
-activity depends on complex and highly regulated cellular activities that using stored energy
-function singly as unicellular glands
-function in clusters, solid cords, or hollow follicles as multicellular glands
-secretions discharged into ducts, lumen of hollow visceral structures, body surface, or directly into blood
-2 types: exocrine and endocrine
-interesting fact: cancer of a gland is called adenocarcinoma Without surface specialization With microvilli
(brush/striated border) Ciliated With goblet cells -have large secretory vesicles that give them the appearance of a goblet
-vesicles contain mucus
-produce mucus in great quantity and secrete onto surface of epithelial membrane -plasma membranes extend out in hundreds of microscopic fingerlike projections called microvilli
-in the intestines
-well suited for absorbing nutrients and fluids from the intestines because of increased surface area
-more numerous than cilia -microscopic hairlike -rhythmic motion -cause the movement of the cell -simple columnar without any modified structure -Classified by
-the number of layers
-the unique arrangement of differing cells shapes in a stratified, or layered, epithelial sheet -Some columnar cells are specialized for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue - Found throughout the body Based on cell shape and number of layers