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Age of Empires
Transcript of Age of Empires
With the invention of gunpowder and after the discovery of the Americas, many different empires were capable of expanding their territories across the world
-Rely on navies for power and empire
-Empire spread out over islands and not unified
-Based in Asia and Americas
-Reliance on trade
2 kinds of Empires:
-king has absolute power over people
-no checks on power
-France, Spain, Islamic Empires, Russia, China
Absolutist vs. Constitutional Monarchies
-Viking trade routes
-Trade with Byzantine Empire
-Kievan Rus: converted to Eastern Orthodoxy
-1223: Ogedai Khan invades Rus
-1480: Golden Horde kicked out of Russia
Russians are influenced by Byzantines and Mongols, but not really either....
Russian Empire (Origins)
-Rely on large armies for power and empire
-Empire compact and spread over a large area
-Based mostly in Asia
-Reliance on taxes and expansion
-Ottoman Empire (dark green)
-Safavid Empire (Yellow)
-Mughal Empire (Purple)
-Russia (Mustard Yellow)
-Ming/Qung Dynasty (Neon Green)
-king has a legislature or checks to their power
-Recovered from Reconquista (1492)
-Conquered Mexico/Aztecs: (1521), Central America (Maya), West Coast of Central America/Inca (1532)
-Complete control over colonies
Land Based Empires:
-Islamic Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
-China: Ming, Qing Dynasties
Ottoman Empire: 1299-1923
-Took over lands from Byzantine Empire (including Constantinople
Mehmed II: Mehmed the Conqueror
Conquered Constantinople and Byzantine Empire
Conquered Egypt and.....
Conquered Mecca and Medina
Claimed to be next Caliphate (successor to Muhammad)
Suleiman the Magnificent
-Reformed Ottoman Taxation and Law
-Conquered many different Christian lands, including Hungary
-Built many beautiful buildings
That hat though....
Devshirme System: Takes Christian boys, raises them in Islam, and makes them into workers for the government in different categories:
-Men of the Pen: government workers
-Men of the Sword: Soldiers (Janisseries)
Millet System: System to treat dhimmi (non Muslims)
-Non-Muslims allowed to overall rule themselves
-had to pay Jizya (tax for non-Muslims)
-Got to run their own churches and local affairs
Safavid Empire: 1501-1736
-Conquered most of modern day Persia and Iraq
Religion and Conflict:
-Safavid Rulers were Shia
-Desired control of Silk Road
-Often at war with Ottomans over control over Mesopotamia
-Looked for European lands for alliances against Ottomans
-Treated Christians with respect and had religious toleration
Mughal Empire: 1526-1857
-One of the few times all of India was fully unified by one government
-Originally from Central Asia
-Muslim, Turkish, Mongol
-Great grandson of Genghis Khan
-Tried to find an empire, found one in India
-Conquered whole sub-continent, established Mughal Empire (Mughal- "Mongol" in Persian
-Tripled size of Empire, conquering all of India
-consolidated Mughal Rule
-responsible for many great building projects, including the Taj Mahal
-1294: Kublai Khan established Yuan Dynasty
-1368: Mongols kicked out, Ming Dynasty
-1644: Ming Dynasty falls, Qing Dynasty rises
-1911: Qing Dynasty falls
Kings of Russia:
+Ivan III (1440-1505):
-kicked the Mongols out in 1480
-declared himself power over all of Russia
-married the last Byzantine princess
-declared self "Czar"
Ivan IV (4) "The Terrible" (1530-1584)
-consolidated power by killing the boyars (nobles)<= this was why he was called "the terrible"
-invited Italian artists to come and help build the Kremlin, a huge palace complex that came to be a symbol of Russian power
Peter I "The Great": (1672-1725)
-tried to Westernize Russia, (make
it more European)
-Modeled government, military, and
economics on Europe
-Conquered parts of Eastern Europe
-Established a new Capital of Russia
(St. Petersburg), had a warm water port
After Ivan IV: "Time of Troubles", (1604-1613)
Civil War over next Czar
Michael Romanov becomes next Czar
establishes Romanov Dynasty
its right there (considered one
of most beautiful cities)
-Spain, France, England, Netherlands (Dutch)
-heavy reliance on a navy to defend their nation/ empire
-empire very spread out, composed of islands and far off countries
-Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico)
-Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia, Peru, Venezuela)
-Viceroyalty of Rio De La Plata (Argentina, Chile)
-reasons for colonization:
1. Religious Toleration
Pennsylvania, founded by Quakers: a Protestant Christian group that believes in Pacifism (no fighting at all) and rejects the notion of the King of England in charge of Christianity
Maryland, founded by Catholics: After Henry VIII split from the Catholic Church, those who decided to remain loyal to th Catholic Church were always suspected to be spies. A number of them decided to leave to make a new world for themselves.
Massachusetts: founded by Puritans: This group of Protestants thought the Church of England was too Catholic, and hoped to "Purify" it of Catholic influnces. There was a moment where they had complete control over the government (Oliver Cromwell if you're interested) After being kicked out, alot of them decided to create a new world based on their interpretation of Christianity.
British East India Trading Co.
-Began setting up trading posts in India with the Mughal Empire. Eventually, they will gain more power and we'll see where that ends up...
British East India Company Symbol,
The bad guys from
Pirates of the Caribbean
Background: Yuan Dynasty (1291-1368)
-Overall, effective rulers, but did not focus on improving China's agriculture (because they're Mongols, duh)
-left many lands abandoned
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
-This was the last native ruled dynasty of China.
-It is also considered China's "Cultural Golden Age" Most of the beautiful stuff we get from China comes from this dynasty
-Re-fertilized the land by settling farmers to the outer territories. They then put fish in the rice paddies to swim and fertilize the lands left abandoned by Mongols
-Zheng He! (remember him? The guy who traveled all around the Indian Ocean? He was during the Ming Dynasty
-PS- he was Muslim, he became part of the Chinese due to the Mongol invasions
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
-This was the LAST dynasty of China
-This dynasty was not even Chinese
-China was conquered by the Manchus (Manchuria)- They were kind of Mongols, nomadic
-BUT, they kept alot of Chinese programs in place and allowed the Chinese to continue running themselves. They kept the Confucian Civil Service Exam and the Chinese bureaucracy
France: Absolute Monarchy
The line of Kings since Clovis and Charlemagne had largely remained unbroken. After the Protestant Reformation, there was a small shakeup, but in the end, the line of kings remained unbroken. There was some desire for France to colonize the New World and take part in the wealth Spain had produced.....
France and its 2 Colonies:
Battle of Plassey: (1757)
Giant battle between Mughal Empire and the British East India Trading Company.
-Huge victory for the British. Made them the premier power in India
-1857: Year the British officially took control of the Mughal Empire and made it a colony
Why do I have one arm without a sleeve?
Japan (Tokugawa Shogunate)- 1608-1868
-Ruled by feudalism
-Questions are in the packet, here are some pretty pictures....
I look like a toad
Tokugawa Ieyasu: First Shogun
I'm so scared!
Girl, I look fabulous
Gunpowder (Land-Based) Empires
-China (Qing and Ming Dynasties)
-(Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal)
Decided to keep many of the government structures of the Byzantine Empire,
-Originally controlled by Phillip II of Spain, but when the Protestant Reformation spread there, a revolt led by William of Orange led to the country's independence.
-Union of Utrecht: signed in 1579: 7 northern provinces agreed to fight together against Spain
-1588: the provinces became a republic
1652: Dutch East India Company founded
Cape Town as a supply station for trade with India.
Afrikaaners: Dutch settlers in Africa
-(lost to the British- 1852)
1602: the Netherlands
sets up trading posts on
(They were able to keep these colonies until WW2, 1945)
New York- originally settled by the Dutch, labeled "New Amsterdam" lost to the British
Reasons for French Colonization:
1. Trading Posts (fur)
2. Missionaries (converting Indians to Christianity
3. Excess population (not a huge problem)
Canada, "New France"- mostly for fur trapping
Haiti: (known as Saint Domingue)
- mostly sugar plantations, worked by slaves