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Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes
Transcript of Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes
- Preconceived negative judgements of a group and its individual members
- Feelings of scorn, dislike, fear, or aversion
- Viewed as an attitude or evaluation
Goal Relevance of Discrete Emotions
-Emotions are critical to the natural goal seeking process
-Emotions organize and coordinate ongoing psychological action, so that people might respond more effectively to events related to individual survival and success
-There is a functional specificity to the emotional system; different events evoke different emotions
The Six Emotions
-People experience distinct emotions toward groups perceived to differ on the dimensions of warmth and competence
1.) Humans evolved as highly interdependent social beings
2.) Effectively functioning groups tend to possess particular social structures and processes.
3.) Individuals possess psychological mechanisms "designed" by biological and cultural evolution to take advantage of the opportunities provided by group living
and to protect themselves from threats to group living
Why is the Sociofunctional
Approach important to prejudice?
- People want to protect the group and the emotions help protect the group whether they are real or imagined threats
-shaped by evolution - complex cognitive
to help us survive appraisals to social
1.) Different groups can evoke qualitatively different profiles of emotional reactions
2.) Measures of prejudice as traditionally conceived will often mask the variation across groups in evoked emotion profiles
3.) Different groups can evoke qualitatively different profiles of perceived threats
4.) General measures of perceived threats will often mask the variation across groups in evoked threat profiles
5.) Profiles of the specific threat posed by specific groups will reliably and systematically predict the emotion profiles evoked by these groups
Stereotype Content Model
Pity- High Warmth Low Competence
Envy- Low Warmth High Competence
Admiration- High Warmth High Competence
Contempt- Low Warmth Low Competence
Intergroup Emotions Theory
-People experience a diversity of discrete intergroup emotions toward different groups
-Individuals interpret situations in terms of harm or benefit for one's own group and experience specific emotions
- 235 European American Undergraduate Students
- ~20 Years Old
- 63% Female 37% Male
- 51% Mainstream Christians
Revised Integrated Threat Theory
-Four umbrella categories of constructs cause negative psychological and behavioral reactions to groups thought to pose such threats
-Realistic Threats to the In-group
-Symbolic Threats to the In-group
-Realistic Threats to the individual
-Symbolic threats to the individual
Realistic Conflict Theory- View that direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups
Relative Deprivation- Belief that the in group fare poorly compared to others
Social Identity Theory- People favor in groups over out groups in order to enhance their self esteem
In Group Favoritism- tendency to discriminate in favor of in groups over out groups
Out Group Homogeneity- tendency to assume that there is a similarity among members of out groups than among members of in group
Dehumanizing Out groups- Simplistic processing of out group members
-Participants were presented with an assortment of ethnic, religious, and ideological groups within the U.S. Participants were inquired about
a.) specific emotional reactions they have towards these groups
b.) general feeling, prejudice they have towards these groups
c.) specific threats they see the groups as posing
d.) general threats they see the groups as posing
- Prejudice is not simple or a quick fix, it is innate for our survival
- Prejudice is a very general feeling that is established through very complex web of emotions
- Nature vs Nurture?
- Because everyone feels these emotions, is it easy to manipulate us?
- What can we do?