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Transcript of Peru
by Romina Deville
Chavìn and Sechìn cultures declined around the 5th century BC, giving way to several unique regional cultures, such as the Saliner and Paracas.
Those cultures are celebrated for artistic and technological advances.
From the Paracas came the Nazcas, who created the Nazca Lines.
Rise of an empire
sophisticated weaving technique of early cultures
The Inca Empire
In 1430, the Incas had little more than a river valley around Cuzco. Soon enough, they controlled a vast territory of almost 1 million square kilometers after years of conquest
Qosqo, which is Cuzco in Quechua, the Inca capital, was one of the richest cities in all of the Americas, from temples covered in gold to people dressed in gold
Most of Qosqo is in ruins today, but it was one of the largest accomplishments of the Incas along with Machu Picchu, which has survived mostly intact today as a ceremonial center
The Inca Empire
The Spanish destroyed many of the things that united the empire, such as the irrigation systems and roads
The indigenous population declined because of new diseases brought by Spaniards
The Incas made a safe haven in the mountains where they resisted the Spanish until 1572, when the Spaniards executed the last Inca ruler, Tupac Amaru I
What led to Spanish Rule?
Tupac Amaru I
In 1535, Pizarro founded on the banks of the Rímac River the Peruvian capital city of Ciudad de los Reyes, present-day Lima.
Disputes over jurisdictional powers broke out among the Spanish conquistadors and in 1541, a member of one of the conflicting Spanish factions assassinated Pizarro in Lima.
The indigenous tradition of Peru went unappreciated as the Spaniards only cared for the use of labor to extract natural resources
Resentment between the native and foreign population would form that would endure longer than 400 years
In 1532, the Inca Empire was at the height of its power when it was driven to a war of succession
The war started at a horrible time, when Francisco Pizarro and his band of Spanish conquistadors came
Pizarro used tricky tactics to get a personal meeting with Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, whom he would assassinate in 1533
Pizarro and his men seized Cuzco and Spanish rule began, thus leading to the end of the Inca Empire in 1572
In 1542, a Spanish imperial council promoted the New Laws for the Indies, which were designed to put an end to the exploitation of the natives
They also created the Viceroyalty of Peru, which comprised of most of Spanish South America and Panama
The Spanish introduced a system of land holding where there were European landlords and indigenous workers.
It established a privileged landed aristocracy that led to the masses having little, if any, education
This resulted in a further division of classes, where a small number of people had money, power, and education when the majority did not
Spanish Rule Begins to Decline
The first Spanish viceroy in Peru created during 1544 was killed in 1546, and after that, no new laws were ever put into place.
In 1569, the Spanish colonial administrator Francisco de Toledo arrived to Peru.
He established a highly effective & repressive system of government.
It lasted around 200 years, consisting of Spanish officials ruling through lower level officials, who were made up of Native Americans who dealt with the indigenous peoples.
Francisco de Toledo
Independence Movements Begin
In 1780, 60,000 Native Americans revolted against Spanish rule under the leadership of the Peruvian patriot José Gabriel Condorcanqui
The uprising was crushed in 1781 and the Spanish tortured and executed Condorcanqui and thousands of his fellow revolutionaries.
Another revolt in 1814 was suppressed by the Spanish
Later, opposition would grow even further in numbers as the Creoles grew in resentment of Peninsulares, who were awarded all important government positions
The Transfer of Power
In September 1820, José de San Martín landed an invasion army at the seaport of Pisco, Peru.
On July 12, 1821, San Martín’s forces entered Lima and Peruvian independence was formally proclaimed on July 28, 1821.
Against the Spanish was also Simón Bolívar, who entered Peru with his armies in 1822.
In 1824, in the battles of Junín and of Ayacucho, Bolívar’s forces routed the Spanish.
Creoles monopolized power after independence.
The division between Europeans and indigenous people–continued to run strong
In 1822, leaders of the colony’s independence movement created a centralized government consisting of a president and a single legislature.
The years following independence were extremely chaotic because Peru was not prepared for democracy.
Andrés Santa Cruz served as ruler until 1827, when he was replaced by José de La Mar, who was in turn replaced by Agustín Gamarra in 1829.
Gamarra ruled until 1833.
Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia, invaded Peru in 1836 and established a confederation of the two countries, but, after that, Gamarra took power again.
Peace was only truly reached in 1845, when Ramón Castilla, seized the presidency.
He was an able ruler who initiated many important reforms, such as the abolition of slavery, the construction of railroads and telegraph facilities, and the adoption in 1860 of a liberal constitution.
Castilla used Peru's rich guano and nitrate deposits to improve the economy.
In 1864, the Spanish seized the guano, which led to war with which Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile aided Peru in defeating the Spanish forces in 1866.
The resulting treaty of 1879 constituted the first formal Spanish recognition of Peruvian sovereignty.
In 1873, Peru signed a secret defensive alliance with Bolivia to protect against Chile.
Peru was drawn into the War of the Pacific when a quarrel arose between Chile and Bolivia over the Atacama nitrate fields, making Peru fight against Chile on the side of Bolivia.
Chile won & occupied Lima, and, under the Treaty of Ancón was awarded Peru's nitrate province of Tarapacá.
In 1929, it was decided that Chile would keep Arica and Peru would regain Tacna.
After the war, several economic and social reforms were set in place to recover from the damage.
The history of inhabitants in Peru goes far back, almost to 8000 BCE, but organized village life did not begin until around 2500 BC.
Around 2500 BC, the early inhabitants began to move to fertile interior river valleys because of climate change.
The Chavin and the Sechin were two of many organized cultures which began to develop.
The Chavìn: favored stylized religious iconography, using striking figurative depictions of various animals
The Sechìn: military dominance was more significant
In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup and undertook radical reforms to allow development, but failed to gain widespread support.
In 1975, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco, stopped reforms and reestablished democracy.
After chronic inflation, the sol was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991.
Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990
He reduced inflation and his reforms were opposed, which caused him to dissolve Congress in 1992, and he also revised the constitution
He was accused of human rights violations & resigned from office & went into a self-imposed exile
1: Peru recently reached an agreement in The Hague International court settling the maritime territorial limits with Chile, ending a dispute dating back to the 50s.
2: Peru signed a free trade agreement with the U.S.
3: Peru recently had a seat in the Security Council of the UN
Social: Peru has experienced the massive growth of an emerging middle class which appeared from migrants from the impoverished Andes to Lima. These migrants have created economic prosperity for themselves and developed in the periphery of the traditional society, which is made of descendents of Spanish families. Many forgotten populations remain in the provinces of the Andes, so poverty has not been addressed completely.
Intellectual: Peru has a strong commitment to science and institutions of higher learning, including the oldest university in the Americas. The degree of literacy and the population of the Andes has remained a challenge, there is still a significant perentage of illiterate people. The largest teacher's union in Peru has a long history of strikes that have slowed down reaching to disadvantaged populations. Peru has a long tradition of excellence in liteature, its most famous writer won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Literacy rate: 94%
Artistic: Art has been centered in Indigenismo and has been syncretized between foreign and local art currents. Peruvian bands have been touring internationally. The singer Gian Marco won a Spanish grammy recently.
Political: Peru is a Presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The Peruvian government is directly elected. There is a presdential term of 5 years that does not allow re-elation for consecutive terms. Peru has enjoyed a degree of stability since the early 2000s when Fujimori was forced to resign.
Economic: Peru has enjoyed the largest economic growth of South America for the past 10 years, giving way to a decreasing poverty and strengthening of its middle class. Economy relies on mineral exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in the prices of these exports. Resent decrease in prices of key minerals have resulted in slowing economic growth.
Religious: The Majority of Peruvians are Catholic and there are minorities of animism and branches of Christianity. Peru has a long tradition of tolerance to other religious beliefs. There is one cardinal for the country.
Terrorism in Peru
In 1980, a group of maoist university professors in Ayacucho led by Abimael Guzman and a faction of Peru's Communist Party (Sendero Luminoso) went into guerrilla warfare in the Peruvian countryside
The group gained strength once Alan Garcia, an inexperienced politician, took office in 1985, which was followed by hyperinflation, an economic and political collapse and inept response to terrorism
The group took control of impoverished areas of the Andean countryside, but their harsh tactics never gained favor among the local communities
They resorted to car bombs and dynamiting the electrical grid to keep the population on edge
The movement collapsed once Guzman was captured in 1992 and most leaders were imprisoned