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AP Human Geography Unit 3
Transcript of AP Human Geography Unit 3
the Material World
isolation = diversity
Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
The groups that brought what became English to England included:
The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
The global distribution of languages results from a combination of two
geographic processes—interaction and isolation.
Estimates of distinct languages range from 2,000 to 4,000. Aside from the 10 largest languages,
About 100 languages are spoken by 5 million people About 70 languages are spoken by 2 million people.
Golf Courses in Metropolitan Areas
Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
Fig. 5-12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
Hebrew diminished in use in the fourth century B.C. and was thereafter retained only for Jewish religious services.
When Israel was established. in 1948, Hebrew became one of the new country’s two official languages
There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
Britain’s 1988 Education Act
An Irish-language TV station began broadcasting in 1996.
A couple of hundred people have now become fluent in the formerly extinct Cornish language, which was revived in the 1920s.
Basque is spoken by 1 million people in the Pyrenees Mountains.
A language of international communication is known as a lingua franca.
A group that learns English or another lingua franca may learn a simplified form, called a pidgin language.
That dialect of inner city blacks has been termed Ebonics, a combination of ebony and phonics. The American Speech, Language and Hearing Association has classified Ebonics as a distinct dialect, with a recognized vocabulary, grammar, and word meaning.
Spanglish is a richer integration of English with Spanish than the mere borrowing of English words.
Spanglish has become especially widespread in popular culture, such as song lyrics, television, and magazines
Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world’s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
World Population by Religion
Universalizing religions have precise places of origin, based on events in the life of a man. Ethnic religions have unknown or unclear origins, not tied to single historical individuals. Each of the three universalizing religions can be traced to the actions and teachings of a man who lived since the start of recorded history. Specific events also led to the division of the universalizing religions into branches.
Origin of Religions
Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Sunni (from the Arabic word for orthodox) 83%
Shiite (from the Arabic word for sectarian, sometimes written Shia in English).
Fig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Participation in the global economy and culture can expose local residents to values and beliefs originating in more developed countries.
North Americans and Western Europeans may not view economic development as incompatible with religious values, but many religious adherents in less developed countries do, especially where Christianity is not the predominant religion.
Religion vs. Social Change
Material World photographer Peter Menzel with Buddhist monks in Bhutan
A highly developed country
Natural energy resources
Major changes in the past century
Most people live in urban areas on the coasts
Similarities and differences between Japanese and American families
Small country along the Persian Gulf
Vast petroleum resources
Economy flourished in the 20th century
Severely damaged by 1990 Iraq invasion
Island country in the Caribbean
Major sugar producer in the 19th century; African slaves
Third largest country; largest national economy
Modern societal strains
World’s largest Spanish-speaking country
Emerging middle class
Formerly called Western Samoa
Traditional culture with some modernization
Relatively stable government and growing economy
Formerly communist, now democratic
One-third of people are nomadic or semi-nomadic; one-third live in the capital city
Vast mineral resources and cultural wealth
A very poor country
At one time, a very wealthy kingdom
Former French colony
Small, mountainous country
Traditional agricultural lifestyle
Social, medical, and environmental difficulties
1 Tishri Muharram*(30 days)
2 Heshvan safar (29 days)
3 Kislev Rabi’a I (30 days)
4 Tevet Rabi’a II (29 days)
5 Shevat Jumada I (30 days)
6 Adar Jumada II (29 days)
7 Nisan Rajab* (30 days)
8 Iyar Sha’ ban (29days)
9 Sivan Ramadan ~ (30 days)
10 Tammuz Shawwal (29 days)
11 Av Dhu al-Q’adah* (30 days)
12 Elu Dhu al-Hijjah (29 days)
*Holy months ~ Month of fasting
Racism in Cities
Ethnicity -> Nationality
Locations of ongoing conflicts worldwide, November 2015
Major wars, 10,000+ deaths in current or past year
Wars, 1,000–9,999 deaths in current or past year
Minor conflicts, 100–999 deaths in current or past year
Skirmishes and clashes, fewer than 100 deaths in current or past year
Language, religion, ethnicity, gender