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Copy of Conformity, Obedience, Authority

Conformity, Obedience, Authority task 2a/2b
by

Jeanie Bell

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Conformity, Obedience, Authority

Conformity
"Behaving as others around you are behaving without being told to do so"
Conformity
~~~~~~~~~
Task 2a/2b
Unit 4
Jeanie Bell
Task 2a/2b
Unit 4
Jeanie Bell
~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
By Matty & Ryan
By Matty & Ryan
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Compliance with common practices
Compliance with common practices
Compliance is a type of conforming which is linked to 'social control'.



It can mean doing what other people in the same social group as you do e.g.; speak, dress or eat.



Family, peers, education, religion, employment and the law all encourage conformity.
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The role of self-esteem
The role of self-esteem
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Self-esteem could be defined as the opinion we have of ourselves.


High self esteem - consider yourself to have self respect and sense of worth.


Low self esteem - feeling insecure, links in to person's background and upbringing.
The purpose of uniforms
The purpose of uniforms
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Most of the public service employees wear a uniform which makes them instantly recognisable to the public, services such as; police, fire and rescue, army and more.


Some uniforms offer protection to employee e.g. special fire proof jackets worn by fire fighters.


Uniforms are also symbols of unity and authority.


Uniform can also be worn as a source of pride such as the green beret for the royal marines as this proves they have successfully completed training and are now a royal marine.
Relevance of conformity in the public services
Relevance of conformity in the public services
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Everyone who join the uniformed public services do so knowing that they are going to be part of a team.


Teamwork and camaraderie are very important in any service.


All members want to be accepted into the team, in order to do so they must conform to the norms of that team.


If one member does not conform, not only does that member risk not being accepted, but there is a danger that this will upset moral and performance of the rest of the team.
Obedience
Obedience
__________________
"The act of obeying orders given by someone of a higher rank"
Following orders
Following orders
___________
In the uniformed services orders are given for a reason.

Some orders can be linked in with life and death situations.

If an order is given by someone in authority, it is not acceptable for anyone to question that order and decide whether or not to obey it.

Orders must be obeyed without question.

Orders can be written or verbal.
Conscious and Unconscious Obedience
Conscious and Unconscious Obedience
_______________________________
Obedience can be conscious or unconscious.

New recruits in the uniformed services may find obeying orders a little strange at first and really have to think hard about what they are doing.

After a while, however, obeying orders will become second nature.

This then becomes unconscious obedience.

This form of obedience is necessary in emergency situations when an instant response is needed.
Status as a factor in obedience
Status as a factor in obedience
_____________________________________________________
Most of the uniformed services have a clear hierarchical rank structure.
Each rank carries a certain status and authority which means that the lower ranks must obey orders from higher ranks.
This is an accepted norm in the uniformed services.
An exception to this would be in the case of a road traffic accident where the police would usually assume overall charge and would give orders and directions to emergency services at the scene.
However, if there was a chemical spillage then the fire and rescue services would take charge and give the orders, as they are the experts in those situations.
Influences
Influences
_
______________
Certain influences can change the manner in which orders are obeyed. such as...

Fear

Reward

Love

Respect
Fear
Fear
___________
Fear of punishments, loss of rank, pay or privileges or fear of being ridiculed by others can lead to some service members obeying orders in which they wouldn't normally do.

A certain element of fear is sometimes necessary to ensure discipline in the uniformed public services
Reward
Reward
_____________
Members of the uniformed public services do not receive 'bonuses' or other incentives for obeying orders and carrying out their duties.

They can receive medals for certain conducts and behaviours, but self-fulfilment and personal job satisfaction can be the 'normal rewards' they receive.
Love
Love
_______________
'love' may not be a term which is used by members of the uniformed services to describe their feelings for their colleagues and for the service itself.


However, camaraderie, mutual trust, respect, admiration, and a deep affection for other team members can all help to ensure obedience.
Respect
Respect
_____
There is a saying that respect has to be earned. this can be very true on a personal level.

In the uniformed services, however, there is another form of respect - that which comes with rank.

Members of lower ranks are expected to show respect to those of higher ranks and there does not need to be a personal respect.

This respect rank is demonstrated by a system of salutes.
The relevance of obedience in the uniformed public services
The relevance of obedience in the uniformed public services
____________________________________________
_____________
Obedience is very relevant in the uniformed services.

The whole structure of rank and discipline relies totally on absolute obedience by the members.

Also, any disobedience by a team member could be completely demoralising.

In life-threatening situations everyone needs to have total trust in one another, and to know that orders which have been given by those in authority will be obeyed immediately and unquestioningly.
Authority
Authority
...............
The power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience: "he had absolute authority over his subordinates".
The right to act in a specified way, delegated from one person or organization to another.
1. Institutionalized and legal power inherent in a particular job, function, or position that is meant to enable its holder to successfully carry out his or her responsibilities.

2. Power that is delegated formally. It includes a right to command a situation, commit resources, give orders and expect them to be obeyed, it is always accompanied by an equal responsibility for one's actions or a failure to act.

3. An agency or body created by a government to perform a specific function, such as environment management, power generation, or tax collection.

4. Judgment of a court or judicial opinion quoted in support of a legal argument.
Authority is based upon power over others.
The police has authority over people because they follow the law. But the law still has authority over them.
Every single person must follow the law and the set regulations which are put in place.
If anyone doesn’t obeyed by this then punishments are put into place. E.g.
You commit a crime whether your a civilian, in the armed forces or even the prime minister you will be prosecuted in the court of law or court marshalled for the armed services.
Police and Authority
Police and Authority
.......................
Independent police complaints commission (IPCC)
Independent police complaints commission (IPCC)
What they do ?

Police authorities

The role of police authorities in complaints forms part of their core duties around promoting the efficiency and effectiveness of policing locally.

Police authorities have statutory duties in relation to complaints to:
keep informed about complaint and discipline matters within their force
provide the IPCC with the information and documentation to carry out its functions (including inspection)

Ensure that the IPCC or person nominated by the IPCC has access to police premises and material/documentation within those premises during the course of an investigation

Ensure that the investigating officer is given all the assistance reasonably required
refer complaints or misconduct matters to the IPCC when the chief police officer has decided not to

Act as the appropriate authority in the recording and investigation of complaints and conduct matters against officers of ACPO rank. This includes a statutory requirement to obtain and preserve evidence in such cases.
..........................................
HM Chief Inspector of Prisons
HM Chief Inspector of Prisons
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Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons for England and Wales (HMI Prisons) is an independent inspectorate which reports on conditions for and treatment of those in prison, young offender institutions and immigration detention facilities.


The role of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons is to provide independent scrutiny of the conditions for and treatment of prisoners and other detainees, promoting the concept of 'healthy prisons' in which staff work effectively to support prisoners and detainees to reduce reoffending or achieve other agreed outcomes.
HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services
HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services
..............................
Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Fire Services for England, Wales and Northern Ireland, is responsible for the inspection and auditing of all Local Authority Fire Services to ensure they meet strict performance criteria and targets laid out by the English, Welsh and Northern Ireland Governments.


For a short period of time the title of HMCI was renamed as Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser however the title was unpopular and was reverted back
Nature of Authority
Nature of Authority
..............................
Power: The ability to force or coerce someone to do your will, even if they would choose not to, because of your position or your might.

Authority: The skill of getting people to willingly do your will because of your personal influence.

Authority is defined as the power to enforce obedience. Enforcing obedience requires been in a position to impose authority. E.G. Parents, government officials, managers and ranking officers etc.

the ability to influence or control others

A persons status, for instance a chief superintendant has authority over inspectors, sergeants etc. He/she is legally accountable for them.

Disobedience to your authority figure can end up especially in a work place as you being put on disciplinary, fired or punishment.

Blind obedience is where someone will follow the person of the authoritative figure no matter what and will not question there decisions.
Types of authority
Types of authority
............................
Authoritarian – high ranking police officers will use this leadership style to make sure a police constable is following the procedures of P.A.C.E correctly.

Dictatorial – leadership style is basically a dictatorship leadership style, so with the armed forces discipline act if commanders are not following it properly a higher ranking officer above them is going to dictate to them what they need to do to ensure they are following it correctly.

Consultative – this leadership style is an advising role, so with P.A.C.E inspectors will advise sergeants to make sure police constables are following the sections of P.A.C.E correctly.

Participative – the leadership style will join in with others to make sure they are following the right sections in with P.A.C.E or the right disciplinary procedures within the armed forces discipline act 2000.
Research Studies
Research Studies
~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Asch Experiment, by Solomon Asch, was a famous experiment carried out, designed to test how peer pressure to conform would influence the judgment and individuality of an individual.
The experiment was simple in its construction; each participant, in turn, was asked to answer a series of questions, such as which line was longest or which matched the reference line.


The participants gave a variety of answers, at first correct, to avoid arousing suspicion in the subject, but then with some incorrect responses added.


This would allow Asch to determine how the answers of the subject would change with the added influence of peer pressure.
Asch Solomon Experiment 1951
(Thinking pose)
Research Studies
Research Studies
________________
The participants - 40 men recruited using newspaper ads. In exchange paid $4.50.

Milgram developed an intimidating shock generator, shock levels starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts. The many switches were labeled with terms including "slight shock," "moderate shock" and "danger: severe shock." The final two switches were labeled simply with an ominous "XXX."

Each participant took the role of a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the "student" every time an incorrect answer was produced. While the participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the student, the student was actually a confederate in the experiment who was simply pretending to be shocked.

As the experiment progressed, the participant would hear the learner plead to be released or even complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock.

Most participants asked the experimenter whether they should continue. The experimenter issued a series of commands to prod the participant along:
1."Please continue."
2."The experiment requires that you continue."
3."It is absolutely essential that you continue."
4."You have no other choice, you must go on."
Stanley Milgram, 1974
Research studies
Research studies
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Stanford Prison Experiment Philip Zimbardo, 1973
Serious
l
V
In 1971, Zimbardo tried to show that prison guards and convicts would tend to slip into predefined roles, behaving in a way that they thought was required, rather than using their own judgment and morals.

Zimbardo was trying to show what happened when all of the individuality and dignity was stripped away from a human, and their life was completely controlled.

He wanted show the dehumanization and loosening of social and moral values that can happen to guards immersed in such a situation.
The Stanford Prison Experiment degenerated very quickly and the dark and inhuman side of human nature became apparent very quickly.

The prisoners began to suffer a wide array of humiliations and punishments at the hands of the guards, and many began to show signs of mental and emotional distress.

riots broke out andphysical punishments were issued to the 'prisoners' they were also stripped and subjected to sexual humiliation.

Interestingly, prisoners didnt want to quit the experiment early, even when told that they would be denied their participation pay. The prisoners had become institutionalized very quickly and adapted to their roles.

Experiment carried on for six days until an student was brought in to interview guards and prisoners and was shocked by the scenes that she was witnessing.

After this Zimbardo terminated the experiment early
Cool Guy
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