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General Biology I - Introduction
Transcript of General Biology I - Introduction
Introduction: Foundations and Scientific Literacy
THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE
I. Each level of biological organization
EMERGENT EVOLUTION: evolution that according to some theories involves the appearance of new characters and qualities at complex levels of organization (as the cell or organism) which cannot be predicted solely from the study of less complex levels (as the atom or molecule)
This means a hierarchy of structural levels!
Starting at a lower level, atoms, the chemical building blocks of all matter, are ordered into complex molecules
Which then combine to form organelles
This is what I want you to KNOW!
1. Atoms bond together to form
2. Molecules, which combine to form
3. Organelles, the small parts of a
4. Cell, which are the building blocks of living things, and combine to make
5. Tissue, which when they have similar functions combine to make
6. Organs, and when several organs work together, they become
7. Organ systems, which when functioning in HOMEOSTASIS, become an
II. Cells are an organism's basic units of
structure and function
The cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all activities of life.
Two Main Cell Types
All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates what goes in and what comes out of the cell and its surrounding environment
III. The continuity of life is based on heritable
information in the form of
Order implies information; instructions are required to arrange parts or processes in an organized way.
Biological instructions are encoded in the molecule known as DNA.
DNA is the substance of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from the parents to the offspring
1. The unit of inheritance, in all living things, is the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
2. Each DNA molecule is made of two long chains arranged into a double helix
3. Nucleotides bond together to form the DNA chain and are thought of as the
LETTERS of inheritance
4. All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code. A particular
sequence of nucleotides say the same thing. Different organisms have
5. Inheritance itself depends on a mechanism for copying DNA and passing
its sequence of chemical letters on to offspring.
6. the entire "library" of genetic instruction of an organism is called its genome
NOTE: A typical gene is hundreds or thousands of nucleotides long
What you should know!
IV. Structure and function are correlated at
all levels of biological organization
V. Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments
What you should know!
1. How something works is correlated with its structure: form
2. Knowing the function of a structure provides insight about its construction
3. Exploring life on its different structural levels, we discover functional beauty
What you should know!
In an open system, entities exchange materials and energy with their surroundings
Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction between them
1. Ecosystem Dynamics:
The cycling of nutrients
The flow of energy:
to photosynthetic life (producers)
to organisms that feed on plants (consumers)
2. Energy Conversion:
The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings involves the transformation of one form of energy to another
Energy is lost as it ascends trophic levels
What you need to know!
VI. Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living systems
Many biological processes are self-regulating, operation by a mechanism called feedback, in which an output or product of a process regulates that process
What you should know!
1. Regulation of living processes are controlled
by feedback systems
2. Negative feedback, also known as feedback
inhibition, slows or stops processes
3. Positive feedback enhances or increases a
4. The majority of feedback process in nature
and the body are those of Negative Feedback
VII. Diversity and unity are the dual faces of
life on Earth
Diversity is the major theme of life:
1.5 million species
50,000 vertebrates (animals with backbones)
Taxonomy: the branch of biology that names
and classifies species
The Three Domains of Life
What you need to Know!
Structural Organization of Life:
King Philip Cried Out "For Goodness Sakes"
VIII. Evolution is the core theme of Biology
Gregor Mendel: Published his work in 1866
Experimented between 1856 & 1863
Established many of the rules of heredity
Now known as the laws of Mendelian inheritance
Understood that there was a factor, a unit of inheritance that was passed from parent to offspring
Understood that some traits were "dominant" while some were "recessive"
Charles Darwin: Published his work in 1859
Worked as a "naturalist" aboard the HMS Beagle which sailed o December 27, 1831 and circumnavigated the globe for five years
Recorded his findings and collected samples at every stop
Realized the diversity of species on the Galapagos Islands of Chile
Finally published one of the most influential and controversial books "On the Origin of Species"
"Unity in Diversity"
All organisms on Earth share the basis of inheritance, DNA
IX. Science is a process of inquiry that includes repeatable observations and testable hypothesis
scientific information needs to be reproducible
Positive feed back loop
1. Diversity is the many species of organisms - while unity is the fact that we all share DNA
2. Taxonomy is the branch of study that names organisms
3. There are three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
4. Know the binomial nomenclature
This is General Biology I
: Students must be in class. Instruction and class work will begin immediately.
Students are responsible for bringing all necessary items to class.
Each student is responsible for contributing to a safe and positive learning environment. Disruptions will not be tolerated.
Each student is responsible for his/her academic success.
What should I expect?
It is said “You only have one chance to make a first impression”
Actually we form initial impressions of people we meet within the first thirty seconds
Most experts say that first impressions remain fairly resistant to change.
Hopefully your first impression of this class will be
Students who are in need of additional instruction are expected to attend extra help sessions.
- Homework is an important part of the learning process and is used to reinforce or prepare for class instruction. Students should expect to have up to 30 minutes of homework daily, which may include worksheet, study guide, grammar, vocabulary, and reading.
- Four unit exams = , Assignments (Applications & Reading questions) = , Research Paper & Presentation = , Class Participation = , and a CUMULATIVE FINAL EXAM =
Welcome to General Biology
What do I need?
What is expected of me?
! – You will need to read the assigned sections and bringing the book to class will help! Tests are taken from the reading assignments and lecture notes.
You should expect to put some time into the study of this subject!
What else do I need?
Notebook: with pen/pencil to take notes during the lecture!
Desire to learn something!
What is expected of me?
Read the assigned pages before coming to class?
Finish the pages in the workbook before we review them
Take notes in class.
Have your homework done.
Study your notes and other material for your tests.
Pass your Lecture Tests.
Pass your Lab Tests.
Pass your Final Exam.
What is the format for the chapter tests?
100 point tests.
Combination of Multiple Choice, Fill-In the blanks, and Label the Diagram.
All questions will come from the lecture material and diagrams that we have done in class.
There is a lot to learn!
This class can be fun as well as
CELL PHONE USE
Cell phone use during class time is prohibited
Thank You for Your Attention
Gen. Bio I looks at biological principles, includes essential concepts and terminology related to the scientific method, some chemistry of living systems, enzyme kinetics, metabolism, cell biology, and genetics.
The successful student will be able to
Demonstrate writing and speaking skills in the context of course content
Present laboratory results in the format of a formal scientific paper
Demonstrate ability to use basic tools of the biological laboratory.
Physical time requierments:
Two (2) 1 hour 15 min. lectures and one (1) three (3) hour lab session per week.
Text and Supplemental Material:
Text: "Biology in Focus", by Campbell, Pearson, ed. ISBN: 978-0-321-81380-0
: Each student is expected to participate in class and ask questions when uncertain.
Students are expected to use class time effectively and complete all daily work by the end of class.
Students are expected to complete all homework and project assignments.
Each student is expected to maintain a notebook.
- There are four (4) Lecture (unit) exams and two (2) lab practical exams. 1 formal Lab Report, A cumulative final exam is given. No exams are dropped! Research Paper & Presentation
MAKE-UP AND LATE WORK
- In accordance with policy, make-up tests are given if there is a good reason why the exam was missed, and the Professor is notified prior to scheduled date. No make-up for Final Exam. The student must provide documentation.
Students who do not make up work or tests will receive a 0 grade.