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General Biology I - Introduction

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Edward Catherina

on 16 February 2018

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Transcript of General Biology I - Introduction

Biology In Focus
Introduction: Foundations and Scientific Literacy
I. Each level of biological organization
emergent properties
EMERGENT EVOLUTION: evolution that according to some theories involves the appearance of new characters and qualities at complex levels of organization (as the cell or organism) which cannot be predicted solely from the study of less complex levels (as the atom or molecule)
This means a hierarchy of structural levels!
Starting at a lower level, atoms, the chemical building blocks of all matter, are ordered into complex molecules
Which then combine to form organelles
This is what I want you to KNOW!
1. Atoms bond together to form
2. Molecules, which combine to form
3. Organelles, the small parts of a
4. Cell, which are the building blocks of living things, and combine to make
5. Tissue, which when they have similar functions combine to make
6. Organs, and when several organs work together, they become
7. Organ systems, which when functioning in HOMEOSTASIS, become an
8. Organism!
Emergent Properties!
II. Cells are an organism's basic unit of
structure and function
The cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all activities of life.
Two Main Cell Types
All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates what goes in and what comes out of the cell and its surrounding environment
III. The continuity of life is based on heritable
information in the form of
Order implies information; instructions are required to arrange parts or processes in an organized way.
Biological instructions are encoded in the molecule known as DNA.
DNA is the substance of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from the parents to the offspring
1. The unit of inheritance, in all living things, is the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
2. Each DNA molecule is made of two long chains arranged into a double helix
3. Nucleotides bond together to form the DNA chain and are thought of as the
LETTERS of inheritance
4. All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code. A particular
sequence of nucleotides say the same thing. Different organisms have
different sequences.
5. Inheritance itself depends on a mechanism for copying DNA and passing
its sequence of chemical letters on to offspring.
6. the entire "library" of genetic instruction of an organism is called its genome
NOTE: A typical gene is hundreds or thousands of nucleotides long
What you should know!
IV. Structure and function are correlated at
all levels of biological organization
V. Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments
What you should know!
1. How something works is correlated with its structure: form
fits function
2. Knowing the function of a structure provides insight about its construction
3. Exploring life on its different structural levels, we discover functional beauty
What you should know!
In an open system, entities exchange materials and energy with their surroundings
Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction between them
1. Ecosystem Dynamics:
The cycling of nutrients
The flow of energy:
Sunlight energy
to photosynthetic life (producers)
to organisms that feed on plants (consumers)
2. Energy Conversion:
The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings involves the transformation of one form of energy to another
Energy is lost as it ascends trophic levels
What you need to know!
VI. Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living systems
Many biological processes are self-regulating, operation by a mechanism called feedback, in which an output or product of a process regulates that process
What you should know!
1. Regulation of living processes are controlled
by feedback systems
2. Negative feedback, also known as feedback
inhibition, slows or stops processes
3. Positive feedback enhances or increases a
4. The majority of feedback process in nature
and the body are those of Negative Feedback
VII. Diversity and unity are the dual faces of
life on Earth
Diversity is the major theme of life:
1.5 million species
280,000 plants
50,000 vertebrates (animals with backbones)
750,000 insects
Taxonomy: the branch of biology that names
and classifies species
Classifying Life
The Three Domains of Life
What you need to Know!
Structural Organization of Life:
King Philip Cried Out "For Goodness Sakes"
VIII. Evolution is the core theme of Biology
Gregor Mendel: Published his work in 1866
Experimented between 1856 & 1863
Established many of the rules of heredity
Now known as the laws of Mendelian inheritance
Understood that there was a factor, a unit of inheritance that was passed from parent to offspring
Understood that some traits were "dominant" while some were "recessive"
Charles Darwin: Published his work in 1859
Worked as a "naturalist" aboard the HMS Beagle which sailed o December 27, 1831 and circumnavigated the globe for five years
Recorded his findings and collected samples at every stop
Realized the diversity of species on the Galapagos Islands of Chile
Finally published one of the most influential and controversial books "On the Origin of Species"
"Unity in Diversity"
All organisms on Earth share the basis of inheritance, DNA
IX. Science is a process of inquiry that includes repeatable observations and testable hypothesis
scientific information needs to be reproducible
Positive feed back loop
Binomial nomenclature
1. Diversity is the many species of organisms - while unity is the fact that we all share DNA
2. Taxonomy is the branch of study that names organisms
3. There are three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
4. Know the binomial nomenclature
This is General Biology I
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