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Copy of Ayatollah Khomeini and Muslim fundamentalism

modern history assessment 2 2012

karen higgie

on 17 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Ayatollah Khomeini and Muslim fundamentalism

Ayatollah Khomeini & Muslim Fundamentalism The King of Kings
The Shah At the beginning of the 20th century Iran was a country ruled by its monarch, locally known as Shahs. Young and inexperienced, the last Shah of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, took reign of a country that was suffering from war famine and on verge of economic collapse. The Shah used the booming oil industry to form relationships and tie itself with the powerful United States. Pahlavi created an unstable country shrouded in oppression, poverty and violence, the perfect nation for a revolution Iran pre-revolution Iran grew with the discovery of oil in 1908 and the formation of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
From the beginning of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iran began to modernise and the Shah at the time, Reza Shah Pahlavi, began to secularise the government and politics.
A few months before the 1979 revolution Iran was suffering through oppression. Displeasure with the Shah and his actions increased as relationships with the west strengthened. The Shah was allegedly focused on gaining money for his personal wealth, infuriating the citizens and assisting the urge for an uprising against the Monarchy; a revolution to diverge from the secular government established by the Shah, to a governmental rule that is in accordance with Islamic ethics and the Sharia Law. Born in 1902, Ruhollah Hendi, more commonly know as Ayatollah (religious leader) Khomeini, was the influential leader behind the 1979 Iran revolution. Exiled from Iran in 1964 for his opposition to reform to governmental ideals, Khomeini lived and worked in Turkey, Iraq and France. The last few months of his 14 year exile, Khomeini organised the revolution and upon return set it into motion. Khomeini died in June 1989 due to serious illness. Ayatollah Khomeini Muslim fundamentalism is a reform of religious, social and political aspects of a country with foundations based on traditional Islamic values. To achieve such a reformation Muslims must abandon ‘corrupt’ foreign powers and ideas such as those of the West. Muslim Fundamentalism
September 1978 - the final downfall of the Shah was due to a strike by oil workers. As the Shah was making his money with excessive prices on oil, he could not supply oil without the workers.

November/December 1978 – Iran begins its downfall with insubordination spreading within the forces

January 16 1979 – The Shah and his Family flea Iran

February 1 1979 – Khomeini returns to Iran from exile to over 1 million supporters lining the streets wanting to witness his homecoming. Khomeini is the symbolic ‘leader of the opposition’

After the return of Khomeini, supporters attacked police and military stations. As each one was taken over the crowd gained more weapons to fight against resisting forces.
Days later, the army and other resisting forces announced that they would stop fighting the people it meant the revolution was over – the people had won The Revolution After the ending of the Revolution, the Iranian government continued to fall apart. The impact of the revolution left Iran in a state of confusion, without a proper government and leaders. Khomeini at first moved with caution to delicately organise a coalition of left wingers, Islamists, intellectuals, nationalists and liberals. A Nation Under New Management On 22 September 1980, Iraq invaded Iran under the commands on Saddam Hussein. The war quickly escalated with thousands of young Iranians and Iraqis fighting each other. Initially neither side could gain an advantage.

However in 1982 the U.S saw the war as a chance to contain any threat Iran may provide in spreading Islamic Fundamentalism. Upon negotiations with Saddam Hussein, Iraq was removed from the list of terrorism-supporting-states and the trading of money and arms began. With the U.S behind it, Iraq gained the upper hand and Iran began to suffer. Iran/Iraq War "The first signal of what would become a U.S. 'tilt' in favour of Iraq came in February 1982, when the Reagan administration removed Iraq from its list of terrorism-supporting states (where it had been a charter member)…Nevertheless, taking Iraq off the terrorism list -- no matter how cynical the reasoning -- removed a number of hurdles that would have hindered U.S. support for Iraq. Soon thereafter, Washington began passing high-value military intelligence to Iraq to help it fight the war, including information from U.S. satellites that helped Iraq fix key flaws in the fortifications protecting al-Basrah that proved important in Iran's defeat the next month. U.S. support for Iraq blossomed throughout the war. Starting in 1983, the United States provided economic aid to Iraq in the form of Commodities Credit Corporation guarantees to purchase U.S. agricultural products - $400 million in 1983, $513 million in 1984, and climbing to $652 million in 1987. This allowed Iraq to use the money it otherwise would have spent on food to buy weapons and other military supplies. Saddam saw his suspicions confirmed with the 1986 revelation that the Reagan administration had secretly been selling weapons to Iran in what later came to be known as the Iran-contra scandal. The United States had sold Iran weapons via Israel, including thousands of sophisticated tube-launched optical-tracking wire-guided (TOW) antitank missiles and Homing-All-The-Way-Killer (HAWK) surface-to-air missiles, in a bid to get Iran to release American hostages held by Iran's Lebanese ally, Hezbollah.” When the war started, the atmosphere in Baghdad changed almost immediately. You could feel it in the air. Iraqi flags-red, white, and black with green stars- were everywhere and somehow intimidating, rather than reassuring to me as a child. Streets filled with Baathist marchers chanting anti-Iranian slogans. Anti-Iranian graffiti proliferated on public walls. Almost overnight, there were soldiers with guns and pictures of Saddam Hussein everywhere. Our state newspaper portrayed Iraqi military leaders as uniformed generals sitting politely in a round table taking instructions from the president; Iranians were shown as crazy mullahs in dirty beards who stood on chairs arguing and yelling at each other. These crazy zealots had attacked us because they wanted to spread their revolution throughout the Arab world, Saddam Hussein had told us, vowing to defend us….He didn’t call our enemies Iranians, but al furs Al Majoos, “fire-worshipping Persians,” a term I later realized must have been designed to revive ethnic hatred that had lain dormant since Persians, mostly Zoroastrians who worshipped fire, had converted to Islam many centuries earlier. By reviving ancient animosities and claiming that he was protecting Iraq from the spread of the Iranian revolution, he was able to portray this as a defensive war, not a war of aggression, which is forbidden by the Quran. Our media was so controlled that I didn’t find out until after I left Iraq that Iran wasn’t the one that even started the war. The Iran Revolution was a significant event that greatly influenced modern society.
Many fear the idea of Islamic fundamentalism, whose laws are strict and punishments inhumane. Islamic Fundamentalism Today Source 1 Source 2
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