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Chapter 8: Political Participation

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Laura Albright

on 25 July 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 8: Political Participation

Explaining Voter Turnout
A Close Look at Nonvoting
Political Participation
The Rise of the American Electorate
REPUBLICANS
DEMOCRATS
COMPROMISE
Chapter 7: Political Parties,
Participation, & Elections

THANK YOU!
Voter turnout in US elections has
1860-1900..........................
2000....................................
Why do so few Americans vote?
1. Not everyone who is eligible
voting age population:
(VAP)
voting eligible population:
(VEP)
Who is excluded from the VEP?
noncitizens and felons
Micheal MacDonald
Why do so few Americans vote?
2. Turnout of registered voters is different than the VAP
Getting more people registered does NOT necessarily mean more people will vote
National Voter
Registration Act of 1993
a.k.a. "Motor Voter"
register to vote when getting a driver's license or at other state offices
resulted in
an increase in voter registration but not in voter turnout
GOTV campaigns
Get-out-the-vote impact varies
2008 study found 2 GOTV initiatives were most effective.
door-to-door canvassing
leaflets
direct mail
e-mail
phone calls
radio ads
TV ads
election day festivals
Political Participation
voting
joining civic organizations
supporting social movements
writing to elected officials
creating a political protest
Political Protests
Writing to Elected Officials
Joining Civic Organizations
Supporting Social Movements
Voter Qualifications
When the Constitution was ratified, in order to vote, one had to be...
white
male
21 years old *
a property owner
Traditionally, election laws were determined by ________ level government....
...but through various
amendments
and
federal laws
, the federal government has taken a larger role.
state
Voter Enfranchisement
Property tax abolished
Women granted the right to vote
African-Americans granted the right to vote
15th Amendment (1870)
Poll tax abolished
18 year olds granted the right to vote
19th Amendment (1920)
during Jackson administration
Civil Rights Act of 1964
26th Amendment (1971)
Barry McGuire
"Eve of Destruction"
Tupac
"Changes"
Rage Against the Machine "Testify"
Kingston Trio "MTA"
Eddie Cantor
"You Don't Need Wine"
Micheal Jackson, etc. "We are the World"
Voter Disenfranchisement
$2.00 in 1913
=
$48.06 in 2014
$10.50 in 1928
=
$146.08 in 2014
Especially in the South, poor and non-white voters experienced discrimination
These included:
threats and action of violence
poll tax
literacy tests
guessing games
complex registration forms
difficult times/locations to register
Overall, voter turnout seems to be declining, but why?
1. Political parties are less competitive.
"Responsible party" model
political parties should be competitive, offer different policies, recruit quality candidates, and educate voters
parties no longer do this
2. The decline is not a true reflection of a lack of voting
voter fraud
party cohesion result of no primaries
Ballots
up to the 1890s, were printed and distributed by the political party
beginning around 1890, the US adopted the Australian ballot
Australian ballot
: a government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret
registering to vote
Help Americans Vote Act (2002)
a.k.a. "HAVA"
required states to update their voting machines
All this does not fully explain the differences in voting turnout across elections, however...
Presidential elections............
Off-year elections/ ................
State elections
Local elections......................
50-60%
30-40%
20-25%
V
o
t
i
n
g
most common
likelihood of exaggeration
"civic duty" and socialized early in as an important part of community
Participation Varies
Six forms of participation among US citizens
completely inactive
activists
voting specialists
campaigners
communalists
parochial participants
65-80%
55%
______________
steadily declined
Modeling Voting Behavior
What influences voting behavior?
1) The Sociological Approach
2) The Social Psychological Approach
3) The Economic Approach
partisanship/ideology
frequency
aka "The Michigan Model"
modeling allows us to ______ and _____ behavior
explain
predict
aka "The Columbia Model"
class/group based voting
common group interests shape partisan preference
demographic cues guide voting choices
creates a stable and continuous electorate
examined the
psychological
process
partisanship filters how voters shape political preferences
creates stability in partisanship
Funnel of Causality
voters behave
rationally
voters will choose whichever party * brings them more benefits
creates instability
What influences YOUR vote?
Y
X1
X2
X3
E
your vote
factor #1
factor #2
factor #3
Error
+
+
+
=
Overview of Voting Influences
Voter ID Laws
State laws requiring ID on election day.
Proponents argue
Opponents argue
This unfairly disenfranchises voters.
This prevents voter fraud.
Long-term forces
Party ID
Ideology/Values
Medium-term forces
party images
group context
Short-term influences
issues
candidate image
, life evaluations,
,
campaign strategy
because circumstances and attitudes change
Political Parties in the US
political party
: a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by providing a "label"
provides a label for voters
serves as an organization to recruit candidates
coordinate a set of leaders to control government
decentralized

and

weak
political parties are now
Political Realignments
critical realignments
describe a major, lasting shift in the popular coalition that supports the parties
a party loses big time and disappears
voter support shifts from the two parties
1860, 1896, 1930
Partisan Decline
realignment vs. decay
Between 1960-1980...
The number of people identifying with a party
declined
...
while the number who
split-ticket
vote
increased
.
The Two-Party System
winner-take-all method
a.k.a. the plurality system
the winner is the person who earned the
most
votes
not nessecarily the majority
the winning party and the losing party

UNIMODAL VOTING DISTRIBUTION
BIMODAL VOTING DISTRIBUTION
Full transcript