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Chapter 8: Political Participation
Transcript of Chapter 8: Political Participation
A Close Look at Nonvoting
The Rise of the American Electorate
Chapter 7: Political Parties,
Participation, & Elections
Voter turnout in US elections has
Why do so few Americans vote?
1. Not everyone who is eligible
voting age population:
voting eligible population:
Who is excluded from the VEP?
noncitizens and felons
Why do so few Americans vote?
2. Turnout of registered voters is different than the VAP
Getting more people registered does NOT necessarily mean more people will vote
Registration Act of 1993
a.k.a. "Motor Voter"
register to vote when getting a driver's license or at other state offices
an increase in voter registration but not in voter turnout
Get-out-the-vote impact varies
2008 study found 2 GOTV initiatives were most effective.
election day festivals
joining civic organizations
supporting social movements
writing to elected officials
creating a political protest
Writing to Elected Officials
Joining Civic Organizations
Supporting Social Movements
When the Constitution was ratified, in order to vote, one had to be...
21 years old *
a property owner
Traditionally, election laws were determined by ________ level government....
...but through various
, the federal government has taken a larger role.
Property tax abolished
Women granted the right to vote
African-Americans granted the right to vote
15th Amendment (1870)
Poll tax abolished
18 year olds granted the right to vote
19th Amendment (1920)
during Jackson administration
Civil Rights Act of 1964
26th Amendment (1971)
"Eve of Destruction"
Rage Against the Machine "Testify"
Kingston Trio "MTA"
"You Don't Need Wine"
Micheal Jackson, etc. "We are the World"
$2.00 in 1913
$48.06 in 2014
$10.50 in 1928
$146.08 in 2014
Especially in the South, poor and non-white voters experienced discrimination
threats and action of violence
complex registration forms
difficult times/locations to register
Overall, voter turnout seems to be declining, but why?
1. Political parties are less competitive.
"Responsible party" model
political parties should be competitive, offer different policies, recruit quality candidates, and educate voters
parties no longer do this
2. The decline is not a true reflection of a lack of voting
party cohesion result of no primaries
up to the 1890s, were printed and distributed by the political party
beginning around 1890, the US adopted the Australian ballot
: a government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret
registering to vote
Help Americans Vote Act (2002)
required states to update their voting machines
All this does not fully explain the differences in voting turnout across elections, however...
Off-year elections/ ................
likelihood of exaggeration
"civic duty" and socialized early in as an important part of community
Six forms of participation among US citizens
Modeling Voting Behavior
What influences voting behavior?
1) The Sociological Approach
2) The Social Psychological Approach
3) The Economic Approach
aka "The Michigan Model"
modeling allows us to ______ and _____ behavior
aka "The Columbia Model"
class/group based voting
common group interests shape partisan preference
demographic cues guide voting choices
creates a stable and continuous electorate
partisanship filters how voters shape political preferences
creates stability in partisanship
Funnel of Causality
voters will choose whichever party * brings them more benefits
What influences YOUR vote?
Overview of Voting Influences
Voter ID Laws
State laws requiring ID on election day.
This unfairly disenfranchises voters.
This prevents voter fraud.
, life evaluations,
because circumstances and attitudes change
Political Parties in the US
: a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by providing a "label"
provides a label for voters
serves as an organization to recruit candidates
coordinate a set of leaders to control government
political parties are now
describe a major, lasting shift in the popular coalition that supports the parties
a party loses big time and disappears
voter support shifts from the two parties
1860, 1896, 1930
realignment vs. decay
The number of people identifying with a party
while the number who
The Two-Party System
a.k.a. the plurality system
the winner is the person who earned the
not nessecarily the majority
the winning party and the losing party
UNIMODAL VOTING DISTRIBUTION
BIMODAL VOTING DISTRIBUTION