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Ch. 17 The Tide of War Turns
Transcript of Ch. 17 The Tide of War Turns
- He, along with many others, urged a hesitant Lincoln to free the slaves
January 1, 1863
President Lincoln issues
The Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipate = to free
Proclamation= to announce/declare
Very few slaves were actually freed.
Troops enforced the proclamation
Not about unity anymore.
Only freed the slaves The Union army could reach. Did not include those in border states.
Union soldiers supported it because they were happy "to destroy everything that gives the rebels strength"
Freed slaves took labor from the South and gave soldiers to the Union
Many Northern people angry because they said it would only make the war worse.
African-American men willing to fight "will be received into the armed service of the United States"
The Emancipation Proclamation says,
After the Emancipation Proclamation, African Americans rushed to join the war.
About 180,000, by the war's end, in all-black regiments.
Worst jobs, less pay, but very proud
The Civil War caused social, economic, and political changes in the North and the South
Both sides of the war were disagreeing amongst themselves.
Copperheads: Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South
Confederate army lost 40%
Laws of conscription = the draft
South- $6000 for substitutes
North- $300 bounties for volunteers (small amount drafted)
New York City riots
100+ people killed in 4 days
Economic Effect of the War
South- Food shortages (Farmers fighting, trains carry weapons)
Inflation (Food bill $6.65 --> $68 in two years) 9,000%
North- Inflation (not nearly as bad. but higher than wages)
boosted industry (factories) and economy (selling)
--> This is when the USA started to replace farming with industry as our main money source
Green-backs are made
Paper money that the Union made to make sure that people kept spending
When Union advanced, they stayed while whites fled.
Fed and tended to wounded soldiers
"The angel of the battlefield"
Founded The American Red Cross
Women became war nurses
Ran the farms back home
50,000 men died in Civil War prison camps.
starvation, disease, exposure
Battle of Gettysburg
How The North Wins The War
July 1, 1863 Pennsylvania
- Lasted for 3 days
- 90,000 Union v. 75,000 Confederate
Gen. George Pickett (C)
directed an attack to the middle of the Union fighting line. 13,000 troops rushed uphill
This was as far North as the Confederate Army ever got
The Siege of Vicksburg
July 4, 1863 Mississippi
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant defeated Confederate troops
- Surrounded the city. Prevented the delivery of food and supplies until they surrendered.
Now 2 large victories for the North
Britain gives up all thought of helping the South
Sherman's Total War
September 1864 Atlanta
Forged a path from Tennessee to the Atlantic Ocean
Burned and looted towns
Gave the North more power and made Lincoln look good. Won re-election
Grant's Virginia Campaign
Attack, rest, attack.. all while moving south
He told Lincoln that whatever happened, he would never retreat.
Death toll was huge. ID'ed themselves
Arrived in Richmond and dug a trench.
After 10 months, the Confederates retreated and the Union took over the city
June 1864- April 1865
Surrender at Appomattox
April 9, 1865
Appomattox Court House, Virginia
Lee & The Confederate army surrender to Grant
The North was kind to them
- Returned home in peace
- Could take private possessions
- Could take horses with them
- Gave them food
"I felt like anything rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought, and one for which there was the least excuse. I do not question, however, the sincerity of the great mass of those who were opposed to us"
- Ulysses S Grant
One American's Story :
As the Civil War moved into its third year, the constant demand for men and resources began to take its toll back home. Sometimes, the hardships endured by civilians resulted in angry scenes. On April 3rd, 1863, a resident of Richmond, Virginia, named Agnes came upon a group of hungry women and children, who had gathered in front of the capitol. She described the scene as these women and children were joined by other people who were upset by the shortage of food...
The Crowd now rapidly increased, and numbered, I am sure, more than a thousand woman and children. It gew and grew until it reached the dignity of a mob- a bread riot."
The mob then went out of control. It broke into shops and stole food and other goods. Only the threat of force ended the riot.