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Racial Identity Models
Transcript of Racial Identity Models
Handout Jean Phinney Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Development Phinney was one of the earliest theorist to develop and test a general ethnic identity development model.
Phinney believed that the issue of ethnic identity was important to the development of positive self-concept for minority adolescents What is Ethnic Identity? Ethnic Identity has no universal meaning.
Ethnic Identity examines how minorities are grouped by national identity.
Ethnic Identity can be classified into two Categories:
External referring to the language, media, cultural traditions, interactions
with other members of culture, and activities.
Internal is referring to to the cognitive, moral, and affective. Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Phinney's models is based off of three
Stage One: Unexamined Ethnic Identity (Diffusion-Foreclosure)
Stage Two: Ethnic Identity (Search/Moratorium)
Stage Three: Ethnic Identity Achievement
References Phinney, J.S.,(1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity development in adolescence. In Bernal, M.E., & Knight, G.P., (Eds.), Ethnic Identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 61-79)
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., Renn, K.S. (2010). Student development in college: theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Ferdman, B.M. & Gallegos, P.I. (2001). Racial identity development and Latinos in the United States. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe & B.W. Jackson III (Eds), New Perspectives on racial identity development (pp. 32-66). New York & London: New York University Press
Horse, P.G., (2001). Reflections on American Indian identity. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe & B.W. Jackson III (Eds), New Perspectives on racial identity development (pp. 91-107). New York & London: New York University Press
Kim, J., (2001). Asian American identity development theory. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe & B.W. Jackson III (Eds), New Perspectives on racial identity development (pp. 67-90). New York & London: New York University Press
Renn, K.A. (2000) Patterns of Situational Identity Among Biracial and Multiracial College Students. Review of Higher Education, 23, 399–420.
Renn, K.A., Patton, L.D., Guido, F.M., Forney, D.S., & Evans, N.J. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research and practice. (pp. 260-304). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Vandiver, B. J., Fhagen-Smith, P.E., Cokley, K.O., Cross, W.E. (2001). Cross’s nigrescence model: From theory to scale to theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29 (3). ProQuest Psychology Journal. pp 174.
Worrell, F.C., Cross, W.E., Vandiver, B.J. (2001). Nigrescence theory: Current status and challenges for the future. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29 (3). ProQuest Psychology Journal. pp 201.
Most researched theory on White identity development
Raises awareness of White people’s role toward a racist society
Clarifies need for responsible action to eliminate racism
Asserts all U.S. people have power & privilege-based racial identity
Helm’s White Identity Development Model Two Phases of Helm’s WID Phase I Phase II Abandonment of racism Evolution of non-racist identity Transition from oblivious or naive race conception In-depth reflection & progressive interaction with other races Rowe, Bennett & Atkinson’s White Racial Consciousness Model Originated based on 4 concerns with WRID Models
Disagreed Whites & People of Color share identity dev. processes
Lack of specific focus on White identity development
Assumes linear process with no empirical verification
Helm’s theory confined solely to Black-White framework
Derived from Phinney’s Ethnic Identity Stage Model Mixed-race identities are commonplace throughout the world.
One-drop rule ensured non-transfer of property, voting & inheritance rights.
1967...Supreme Court declared laws forbidding Mixed-race marriages unconstitutional. Multi-Racial or Bi-Racial Identity Development Theory Renn’s Ecological Mixed-Race Identity Development Theory Revealed importance of space & peer culture on development
Highlights fluidity of identity patterns & impossibility of single identity
Students’ selection of racial identification based on specific institution
Provides suggestions for assessment, policy changes, programs, structural diversity
curriculum & boundary crossing Cross and Fhagen-Smith: Black Racial Identity Model Nigrescence Theory = The Process of becoming Black *Multiple identity clusters are present at each stage, as shown in CRIS Central Concepts Personal Identity- traits and characteristics that compromise individual personality.
Reference Group Orientation-values and world views (including one's political and philosophical views).
Race Salience- refers to the importance (measure) of race in one's life.
A. Low race salience
B. High race salience
C. Internalized racism
Nigrescence Pattern A- developed from "formative socialization experiences" (parents, family, community).
Nigrescence Pattern B- not socialized toward Blackness or no healthy black identity developed, conversion begins.
Nigrescence Pattern C- Black identity develops through adulthood, idea of nigrescence recycling, expanding or modifying. Sectors: Infancy/Childhood- family income, traditions, practices, institutions, history.
PreAdolescence- parently socialization= salience, no fully developed identity.
Adolescence- (based off of Marcia's statuses)
A. foreclosed: acceptance with a reflection
B. moratorium: explortion to establish self concept
C. achieved identity: black self concept based on personal beliefs
D. authenticated identity: race saliece, awareness of blackness Sectors contd: Early Adulthood- salience development, RGO-> value race and black culture
Adult Nigrescence- refers to Cross' original model and stages of Nigrescene
Nigrescence Recycling- refers to new theories introduced by Thomas A. Parham
A. adolescent's from different home environments begin nigrescene at different places
B. nigrescence process is repeated throughout adulthood. "White is Right, Black is Wrong", internalize black stereotypes, seek to assimilate. Pre-Encounter Immersion Encounter Internalization Internalization-commitment Maintain black relationships, establish relationships with "respectful" whites, build relationships with various ethnic group members Attain personal blackness and sense of racial identity Desire "blackness", avoid "whitness", move toward nationalism, explore history and culture, focus on self, defining and affirming sense of self. Acknowledge racism, experience social rejection, realize races are equal, forced to focus on black identity Five Stages: Latino Identity Development Ferdman & Gallegos
Diversity among the population
Latino as a cultural/ethnic category
Non-sequential orientations: viewing one's identity through a lens Six lens based on:
experience/exposure to other groups
life experiences Wide Broad Narrow External Closed Tinted Latino-integrated Latino-identified Subgroup-identified Latino as Other Undifferentiated/Denial White-identified Kim's Asian American
Identity Development Influence by external, social factors: collectivism
"Model minority" myth: being held to certain expectations
Five sequential stages, non-linear, not automatic 1. Ethnic awareness
2. White identification
3. Awakening to social political consciouness
4. Redirection to an Asian American consciousness
5. Incorporation Horse's American Indian Identity Diversity among tribes, languages, cultures
Dependency & sovereignty
Individual or group consciousness as a whole: 1. Native language and culture
2. Genealogical heritage
3. Embracing old traditions as part of a world view
4. Self-perception (one's view of oneself as Native American)
5. Official recognition by the tribe's government Discovery
Prior to school
Ethnicity comes from family interaction
Exposure/participation in Asian ethnic activities Alienation
Group orientation & trying to fit in
Acceptance of White standards and values
Active: no conscious acknowledgement of differences
Passive: do not separate themselves from other Asians Perspective
Existence of societal blocks
Acceptance of minority status
Resist White values and domination
Feel oppressed, not inferior Stage Identities: pre-encounter:
3. self-hatred immersion/
involvment internalization (humanist):
1. black nationalist
3. multiculturalist racial
4. multiculturalist inclusive Personal Experience
Sense of belonging and pride
Anger toward Whites about treatment of Asian Americans Confidence/Belonging
Clear and firm Asian American identity
Whole person, race is a part of the social identity Scenario:
After high school it is tradition that Greg, real name Lei, family go back to the their native country China to visit. Lei is okay with going but wishes he could stay home. He arrives to China and is just not comfortable with his native people. He decides to spend most of the trip in the hotel room. By stage three student understands their bicultural identity and is more at peace with self. Conflicts or issues that may have arisen are now resolved adn the student is now accepting of their minority culture Stage One: Unexamined Ethnic Identity (Diffusion-Foreclosure) College student has not explored own feelings and attitudes in regards to ethnicity. Student does not see their ethnicity as an issue for self which causes diffusion to their own perspectives or insight.
Foreclosure may be caused due to a negative experience growing up within family and important people in life, which can cause the student to internalize their values. Stage is known as the stage of disinterest. Scenario:
After high school it is tradition that Greg, real name Lei, family go back to the their native country China to visit. Lei is okay with going but wishes he could stay home. He arrives to China and is just not comfortable with his native people. He decides to spend most of the trip in the hotel room. Stage Two: Stage Three: Ethnic Identity Search/ Moratorium Ethnic Identity Achievement Stage two causes college student to become more aware of issues pertaing to their ethnicity through certian situations. Some of the situations may be negative while others positive. Students begin to evaluate their ethinicty and become aware of who they are. Student may seek to know personally about themselves and about their culture as a group
Stage my cause student to feel anger, guilt, or embarassment. Anger towardsteh dominant group, guilt they are unable to relate due to a lack of knowledge which could lead to embarassment Scenario:
Lei has four days left in China and is sick of sitting in his hotel room he decides to go site seeing and look for something to do. On his way down the street Lei sees a gameroom and heads in. While playing a game he is greeted by a group of teens his age and they invite him to hangout. During this time they show him landmarks in China and Lei's ask for them to introduce them to thier culture.