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Trade Routes of East Africa

it's awesome.
by

Kirsten Wade

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Trade Routes of East Africa

Trade Routes of East Africa Axum Great Zimbabwe Southeast of Nubia
Stretched from present day Ethiopia to the shores of the Red Sea
Location made it perfect for trading

Unique language Geez

200 BC - 400 AD Axum commanded triangular trade network
Connected Africa to India by the Arabian Sea stretched to the Mediterranean Sea 300s, King Ezana converted to Christianity
Churches replaced temples
600s, Islam spread across Africa
separated Axum from its own trade network (via distance from Europe and religion from it's forming trading partners)

Civil war and economic decline weakened Axum, the kingdom declined Christianity in Axum Ethiopia King Lalibela in the early 1200s
monks built churches by carving into the solid mountains
they supposedly had divine help
People kept ties with the Holy Land
they made pilgrimages to Jerusalem and were in touch with Christians in Egypt
Over time the people adopted local customs
they adapted East African drum music and dances that are still used in church services today Ethiopia (continued) South and inland from central city-states
Massive stone ruins
Means "great stone buildings"
Palace, towers, and walls indicate a powerful capital of an inland empire
In 1800s Europeans thought it was the Phoenician empire but it Was actually Bantu-speaking people
settled there from 900-1500 Zimbabwe Improved farming. iron, and mining
Population thrived in fertile land
Huge part of trade network and manufacturing
We don't know much about their government but guess that king ruled over court and shared power with 10 different queens
Over-farming ruined soil and civil war broke out

The civilization didn't last. Even after Axum's power faded, its cultural/religious influence didn't vanish
influence remained in the interior uplands of present-day Ethiopia
the mountains helped them maintain their identity
Their Coptic Christian faith helped them develop culture distinct from their neighbors Ethiopia (continued) The Kings of Ethiopia claimed descent from King Solomon (of the Israelites) and the Queen of Sheba
this belief was recorded in "The Glory of Kings" and was reinforced by observing Jewish holidays and dietary laws
Ethiopian Jews (called Falasha) survived in the mountains of Ethiopia and were only recently evacuated due to a famine (they went to Israel) East African City-States As Axum declined, cities arose along the East African coast
Kilwa, Mogadishu, Mombasa, Sofala
In the AD 600s, Persian merchants set up Muslim communities
Bantu-speaking peoples, Asian traders, and Indonesian immigrants also migrated to the East Coast Growing Trade The annual monsoon winds were used to carry ships to India in the summer and to Africa in the winter
Rulers on the East African coast saw the advantages of trade and welcomed traders from all over
ivory. leopard skins, iron, copper, gold, cotton cloth, silk, spices, porcelain, glassware, swords
A large slave trade developed- those captured from interior Africa were sent throughout the Middle East
This trade helped build strong city states
Kilwa was described as "one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world"
Its palace still stands on the cliffs that overlook present-day Kilwa
this palace is evidence of the city's splendor A Blend of Cultures All of the trade occurring caused many different cultures to mix
As Islam spread, Middle Eastern influence increased even more
African women and non-African men married
African wives' property rights allowed her husband to settle and own land, making opportunities for their non-African husbands
their children often gained positions of leadership
Private houses and palaces in East African cities show Arab and Middle Eastern influence a new language, Swahili, arose from this blend of cultures
Swahili fused Arabic words onto Bantu bases and was written in Arabic script
Full transcript