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Relative Clauses and Quantifiers

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Jonathan Lopez

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Relative Clauses and Quantifiers

RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative Clauses are used to give or to ask for additional information about something without starting a new sentence, this way your writing and speech become more fluent by avoiding the repetition of certain words.

In order to form a relative clause, you only have to join two sentences, ideas or pieces of information by using a relative pronoun or a relative adverb. Relative Pronouns Who: subject or object pronoun for people.

Which: subject or object pronoun for animals and things.

Which: referring to a whole sentence.

Whose: posession for people, animals and things.

Whom: object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who).

That: subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible). Relative Adverbs A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition which makes sentences a little easier to understand

Where: meaning in/at which, referring to a place.

When: meaning in/on which, refers to a time expression.

Why: for which, referring to a reason. Defining Relative Clauses Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.) Examples

Do you know the little boy who is sitting next to Freddy?

A mechanic is the person who can repairs cars.

The girl (whom/who) we met yesterday is very nice. Non-Defining Relative Clauses Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used. Examples

Do you know the little boy, who is sitting next to Freddy?

The girl, whom/who we met yesterday, is very nice. QUANTIFIERS Quantifiers are words that are used to state quantity or amount of something without stating the actually number.
Quantifiers answer the questions "How many?" and "How much?"
Quantifiers can be used with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Quantifiers used with Countable Nouns (too) Many Many American tourists come to Colombia in summer.

Cardinal numbers

Ordinal numbers

Few / A few I know a few people in my neighborhood.

Each / Every Fill in each blank.

Several I've called you several times.

A couple (of) There's a couple of parrots in the cage.

Loads of We've got loads of money.
Quantifiers used with Uncountable Nouns Much There isn't much time left.

Little / A little I think you pay (very) little attention to my explanations.

Less Day after day people become less tolerant.

A bit of There's still a bit of time left. Quantifiers used with both Countable and Uncountable Nouns Enough There's enough hotcakes for everyone.

Any Is there any water on the table?

Plenty of They've got planty of chances to pass the semester.

All All electrical equipment should be checked carefully.

More / Most I would like to have more free time.

Some Can you give me some information.

A lot of / Lots of There are a lot of criminals out there.

Neither / Either We have neither oranges nor peaches to prepare a pie

No There will be no test until this topic is totally cleared up.
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