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The Great Gatsby

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Mobolu Coker

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of The Great Gatsby

Archetypal Analysis:

The Great Gatsby

Plot Patterns
Which picture best encapsulates the essence of The Great Gatsby?
Jay Gatsby
pattern of action that shows something we wish did not have to happen
tragedy with heroic dimensions:
person suffers or does for some cause. Heroes are victims but willing ones.
"He wouldn't consider it. He couldn't possibly leave Daisy until he knew what she was going to do. He was clutching at some last hope and I couldn't bear to shake him free."
the tragic figure has had an extraordinary destiny almost in his or her grasp:

He had come a long way to this lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him"
"If he'd of lived, he'd of been a great man... He'd have helped build up the country
parody of romance- ‘
I’m glad it’s a girl. And I hope she’ll be a fool — that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.”
Since it states that as women they all must be beautiful air heads. This is just shows that this love, this quest is not real, that love is just about being a pushover
an implicit moral standard
"They were careless people, Tom and Daisy -- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made"

The standards are that people should have some sort of self respect as well as the integrity to take responsibility for their action they let others.
appeals to the convention of society and uses them as the norm

I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parceled out unequally at birth.”
In this time period the cards you're dealt are the only ones you get even when Gatsby becomes wealthy old money never respects new money.
crowded- frequently with ridiculous objects and details, swarming with people "
In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars.”
The characters are stoical despite the certain knowledge of evil and death
"She hesitated. Well, I've had a very bad time, Nick and I'm pretty cynical about everything"

Setting: the world of innocence
Why they came East I don't know. They had spent a year in France for no particular reason, and then drifted here and there unrestfully wherever people played polo and were rich together. This was a permanent move, said Daisy over the telephone, but I didn't believe it – I had no sight into Daisy's heart, but I felt that Tom would drift on forever seeking, a little wistfully, for the dramatic turbulence of some irrecoverable football game.
origins of hero are "shrouded in mystery
Something in her tone... had the effect of stimulating my curiousity. i would have accepted without question that Gatsby sprang from the swamps of Louisiana or from the lower East Side of New York. that was comprehensible. but young men didn't - at least in my provincial experience drift coolly out of nowhere and buy a palace on Long Island Sound.

hero's environment offers possibilities for magic, mystery and miracles and aids the hero
" Out of the corner of his eye Gatsby saw that the blocks of the sidewalks really formed a ladder and mounted to a secret place above the trees - he could climb to it, if he climbed alone, and once there he could suck on the pap of life, gulp down the imcomparable milk of wonder.”

What comes to mind when you hear the word "hero"?
In your opinion are any characters in the book worthy to be deemed heroic?
Tragic Hero
Definition: A character that takes the blame of everything bad that happens
:Characterized by sensuous beauty, she is one whose physical attraction may bring
about the hero's downfall.

The Lover:
The Lover is playful, sensual, tuned into their physical environment, passionate and compassionate, joyous and creative, living in every moment.
Nick Carraway
Bystander: Someone that was present at an incident or event but did not take part in it
Wise Old Man: In general he depicts and offers guidance and rational wisdom gathered not only from his own life, but also from cultural or universal experience.
Tom Buchanan
Ruler (traditionalist)
Owl Eyes
Wise Fool/Thrill seeker
Unfaithful Wife
Dan Cody
Father figure
Meyer Wolfsheim
Trickster/ The rebel
Platonic Ideal
George Wilson
The Fool
“There are only the pursued, the pursuing, the busy and the tired.”
“I was within and without. Simultaneously enchanted and repelled by the inexhaustible variety of life.”
She’s got an indiscreet voice,” I remarked. “It’s full of-“
I hesitated.
“Her voice is full of money,” he said suddenly.
That was it. I’d never understood before. It was full of money-that was the inexhaustible charm that rose and fell in it, the jingle of it, the cymbals’ song of it.”
“I’ve been drunk for about a week now, and I thought it might sober me up to sit in a library.”
“For a moment the last sunshine fell with romantic affection upon her glowing face; her voice compelled me forward breathlessly as I listened - then the glow faded, each light deserting her with lingering regret, like children leaving a pleasant street at dusk.”
Tom: “Once in a while I go off on a spree and make a fool of myself, but I always come back, and in my heart I love her all the time.
“A stirring warmth flowed from her, as if her heart was trying to come out to you concealed in one of those breathless, thrilling words.”
“It occurred to me that there was no difference between men, in intelligence or race, so profound as the difference between the sick and the well.”
One thing's sure and nothing's surer. The rich get richer and the poor get - children.
It's a great advantage not to drink among hard-drinking people. You can hold your tongue, and, moreover, you can time any little irregularity of your own so that everybody else is so blind that they don't see or care.”
“This is a valley of ashes--a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and, finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air. Occasionally a line of gray cars crawls along an invisible track, gives out a ghastly creak, and comes to rest, and immediately the ash-gray men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight.”
"He had been full of the idea so long, dreamed it right through to the end, waited with his teeth set, so to speak, at an inconceivable pitch of intensity. Now, in the reaction, he was running down like an overwound clock.”
“I wouldn't ask too much of her," I ventured. "You can't repeat the past."
Blessed are the dead that the rain falls on.”
“I noticed that she wore her evening dress, all her dresses, like sports clothes-there was a jauntiness about her movements as if she had first learned to walk upon a golf course on clean, crisp, mornings.”
Her grey, sun-strained eyes stared straight ahead, but she had deliberately shifted our relations, and for a moment I thought I loved her.”
“Daisy began to sing with the music in a husky, rhythmic whisper, bringing out a meaning in each word that it had never had before and would never have again. When the melody rose, her voice broke up sweetly, following it, in a way contralto voices have, and each change tipped out a little of her warm human magic upon the air.”
“I couldn't forgive him or like him, but I saw that what he had done was, to him, entirely justified.”

Who is he anyhow, an actor?"
"A dentist?"
"...No, he's a gambler." Gatsby hesitated, then added cooly: "He's the man who fixed the World Series back in 1919."
"Fixed the World Series?" I repeated.
The idea staggered me. I remembered, of course, that the World Series had been fixed in 1919, but if I had thought of it at all I would have thought of it as something that merely happened, the end of an inevitable chain. It never occurred to me that one man could start to play with the faith of fifty million people--with the singlemindedness of a burglar blowing a safe.
"How did he happen to do that?" I asked after a minute.
"He just saw the opportunity."
"Why isn't he in jail?"
"They can't get him, old sport. He's a smart man.”
• Toms’ Constant Cheating Behind Daisy’s Back

He nodded sagely. "And what's more, I love Daisy too. Once in a while I go off on a spree and make a fool of myself, but I always come back, and in my heart I love her all the time." (Tom)

He constantly practices this dark act of cheating over Daisy.

I found out what your ‘drug stores’ were.” He turned to us and spoke rapidly. “He and this Wolfshiem bought up a lot of side-street drug-stores here and in Chicago and sold grain alcohol over the counter. That’s one of his little stunts. I picked him for a bootlegger the first time I saw him, and I wasn’t far wrong.” (Tom Addressing Gatsby)
The immoral means in which Gatsby acquires his wealth (bootlegging) contrasts his honorable character that he tries to embody throughout the book
• Jordan Cheating At Golf
When we were on a house-party together up in Warwick, she left a borrowed car out in the rain with the top down, and then lied about it — and suddenly I remembered the story about her that had eluded me that night at Daisy’s. At her first big golf tournament there was a row that nearly reached the newspapers — a suggestion that she had moved her ball from a bad lie in the semi-final round (Jordan)
Jordan’s dark act of looking like a champion when really she cheats her way to success

Daisy Presents Herself As a good wife married with a good husband in a normal house hold when really she has an unhealthy marriage with a cheating husband.

Gatsby presents himself as a good men who worked legally when really he was a bootlegger. Rumors also show he had multiple persona’s.

Jordan is seen as a golf champion even though she cheated in golf.
When we were on a house-party together up in Warwick, she left a borrowed car out in the rain with the top down, and then lied about it — and suddenly I remembered the story about her that had eluded me that night at Daisy’s. At her first big golf tournament there was a row that nearly reached the newspapers — a suggestion that she had moved her ball from a bad lie in the semi-final round
Tom practices multiple affairs with other ladies behind Daisy, when interacting with Myrtle, Daisy is forced to play a little fool by ignoring Tom’s actions and be satisfied by his wealth and pleasure. This is an anima for Tom because Daisy feels resigned to Tom and Tom recognizing this puts down Daisy and criticizes her.
Another anima for Tom is when Daisy chooses Tom over Gatsby because she is unable to give up her wealth and power for Gatsby.


Jordan portrays an Animus by interacting with men who are rich.

Catherine portrays an Animus by flirting with Nick.

Myrtle portrays an Animus by showing cheating on George with Tom.

Daisy portrays animus by saying to Gatsby that rich girls don;t marry poor men.“Rich girls don't marry poor boys, Jay Gatsby”
" Wilson? He thinks she goes to see her sister in New York. He's so dumb he doesn’t know he’s alive”
Dan Cody, a man that become immensely wealthy during the gold rush. Jay Gatsby found him drunk on a ship, out on the sea. Jay saved him and in return he gave Jay a taste of elegant society.
"To young Gatz, resting on his oars and looking up at the railed deck, that yacht represented all the beauty and glamor in the world"
“It was indirectly due to Cody that Gatsby drank so little. Sometimes in the course of gay parties women used to rub champagne into his hair; for himself he formed the habit of letting liquor alone.”
The wife to George wilson. Myrtle is poor and powerless, and is having affairs with Tom Buchanan behind Georges back.
"He had discovered that Myrtle had some sort of life apart from him, and the shock had made him physically sick"
"She is. We're all different from you. You see, we were born different. It's in our blood. And nothing that you do or say or steal... or dream up can ever change that. A girl like Daisy..."
Ewing Klispringer is a selfless freeloader who lives in Gatsby's mansion. He takes advantage of Gatsby's wealth and generosity, Klipspringer also fails to attend Gatsbys funeral.
“What I called up about was a pair of shoes I left there. I wonder if it’d be too much trouble to have the butler send them on. You see, they’re tennis shoes, and I’m sort of helpless without them. My address is care of B. F.——”

I married him because I thought he was a gentleman...I thought he knew something about breeding, but he wasn't fit to lick my shoe
""'What if I did tell him? That fellow had it coming to him. He thew dust into our eyes just like he did in Daisy's, but he was a tough one. He ran over Myrtle like you'd run over a dog and never even stopped his car.' There was nothing I could say, except the one unutterable fact that it wasn't true."
"And if you think I didn't have my share of suffering - look here, when I went to give up that flat and saw that damn box of dog biscuits sitting there on the sideboard, I sat down and cried like a baby... I could forgive him or like him, but I saw that what he had done was, to him, entirely justified... I shook hands with him; it seemed silly not to, for I felt suddenly as though I were talking to a child
Definition: Could be a literal child or just living like one.
General characteristics of a child:
generally carefree
Babbling; beginning to develop language.
Judgment based on perception, rather than logic
Doesn't understand limits.
influenced too easily by appearances and too often fail to attend to substance
Definition: human desire of power. Power isn't everything, it's the only thing. It's goal is to create a prosperous, successful family or community however he/she could become authoritarian. Greatest fear: chaos, being overthrown.
"making a short, deft movement, Tom Buchanan broke her nose with his open hand"

“Self-control!” Repeated Tom incredulously. “I suppose the latest thing is to sit back and let Mr. Nobody from Nowhere make love to your wife. Well, if that’s the idea you can count me out. . . . Nowadays people begin by sneering at family life and family institutions, and next they’ll throw everything overboard and have intermarriage between black and white.”
someone who breaks the moral code and are aware what they are doing is wrong
Definition: a person of noble birth with heroic or potentially heroic qualities. This person is fated by the Gods or by some supernatural force to doom and destruction or at least to great suffering. But the hero struggles mightly against this fate and this cosmic conflict wins our admiration.
Characteristics of a tragic hero:
Noble Stature-
established himself as the one who throws extravagantly lavish parties
Tragic Flaw (Hamartia)

His idealized love for Daisy, hope
" He wouldn't consider it. He couldnt's possibly leave Daisy until he knew what she was going to do. He was clutching at some last hope and I couldn't bear to shake him free"
Free Choice
: He made the decision to take the blame for Myrtle's death in an effort to protect Daisy and to stay in West Egg when he knew there would be consequences
Punishment exceeds the crime:
The injustice of him losing his life prematurely when he did not commit the crime
Hero has increased awareness:
Gatsby does not fulfill this aspect as moments before his death he is walking towards the telephone thinking it's Daisy wanting to proclaim her love
Produces Catharsis in audience:
the feeling of frustration and anger at Gatsby's folly is released as he is murdered unjustly.
What comes to mind when you see these images?
Water (Dual image)
saves and takes human life

Colors/ shapes
White (Light): purity, peace, innocence, goodness,
Gold: sun, wealth, prosperity "golden days" "golden age "
3) success: "the golden girl of tennis "
"All night the saxophones wailed the hopeless comment of the »Beale Street Blues« while a hundred pairs of golden and silver slippers shuffled the shining dust. At the grey tea hour ..."
Silver: moon, wealth
Oval (egg): woman, passivity
West Egg: Newly Rich
East Egg: "old money"
Valley – depression, low-points, evil, unknown, poverty

Miscellaneous symbols
Bridge:transformation, change
The city seen from the Queensboro Bridge is always the city seen for the first time, in its first wild promise of all the mystery and the beauty in the world.”
Boats- safe passage
So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”
"At high tide in the afternoon I watched his guests diving from the tower of his raft, or taking the sun on the hot sand of his beach while his two motor-boats slit the waters of the Sound, drawing aquaplanes over cataracts of foam"
"On week-ends his Rolls-Royce became an omnibus, bearing parties to and from the city between nine in the morning and long past midnight"
"But all this part of it seemed remote and unessential. I found myself on Gatsby's side and alone."
"See!" he cried triumphantly. "It's a bona-fide piece of printed matter. It fooled me. This fella's a regular Belasco. It's a triumph. What thoroughness! What realism! Knew when to stop, too - didn't cut the pages. But what do you want? What do you expect?"
" Owl Eyes" is one of the first few people to discover that Gatsby is not who he thinks he is. In his drunken state, he realizes that the books were only props and it's all part of the well-educated image he's trying to convey.
The extent he goes to appear educated when he fills his library with books that a
symbolizes wealth, status and newfound freedom because only the rich had cars.
releases inhibition
illusion that one is freer when intoxicated
ironic symbol because
Tom is prone to violence
The Valley of Ashes represent the lost of hope & poverty within America during those times. It also symbolizes the unachievable "American Dream"
A symbol that can be compared to the Valley of Ashes is the Hunger Games' "District 12". In this place, people lived without hopes of being free since they're just being controlled by the Capitol.
The Green Light
The green light that can found at the end of the dock symbolizes Gatsby's Dream of obtaining Daisy. It represents the "unattainable dream"
―He stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and, far as I was from him, I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seaward – and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far way, that might have been the end of a dock
A symbol from another text/movie is the seed from "The Lorax". The seed represents the hope of saving the world from suffocation, just like Gatsby's hope of reaching the "American Dream" or the dream of a better life.
Eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg
the billboard of Dr. Eckleburg represents God, meaning that God can see every bad thing that is being done by each character throuhgout the story.
– “But his eyes, dimmed a little by many paintless days, under sun and rain, brood on over the solemn dumping ground.”
The Giver, in the story "The Giver" can be compared to the eyes of Dr. Eckleburg since the Giver knows everything that the society has done, yet he can't do anything, leaving him in depression.
The Valley of Ashes

“a pair of enormous eggs… jut out into the
most domesticated body of salt water

in the Western hemisphere” (10)
“the valley of ashes is bounded on one side by
a small foul river
” (26

“The bottle of whiskey - the second one - was now in constant demand by all present,
I always watch for the longest day in the year and then miss it.”
"At first I was surprised and confused; then as he lay in his house and didn't move or breathe or speak hour upon hour it grew upon me that I was responsible, because no one else was interested--interested, I mean, with that intense personal interest to which everyone has some vague right at the end.”
There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams-not through her own fault, but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion, adding to it all the time, decking it out with every bright feather that drifted his way. No amount of fire or freshness can challenge what a man will store up in his ghostly heart”
feather- In Christianity feathers represented virtues. Truth, Speed, Lightness, Flight
fire: Energy, Power, Passion, Action, Sexuality

“She had caught a cold and it made her voice huskier and more charming than ever and Gatsby was overwhelmingly aware of the youth and mystery that wealth imprisons and preserves, of the freshness of many clothes and of Daisy, gleaming like silver, safe and proud above the hot struggles of the poor.”
“Her face was sad and lovely with bright things in it, bright eyes and a bright passionate mouth, but there was an excitement in her voice that men who had cared for her found difficult to forget: a singing compulsion, a whispered “Listen,” a promise that she had done gay, exciting things just a while since and that there were gay, exciting things hovering in the next hour.
and of Daisy, gleaming like silver, safe and proud above the hot struggles of the poor.”
By God, I may be old-fashioned in my ideas, but women run around too much these days to suit me. They meet all kinds of crazy fish.”

They were both in white, and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house.”
“I read somewhere that the sun's getting hotter every year," said Tom genially. "It seems that pretty soon the earth's going to fall into the sun--or wait a minute--it's just the opposite--the sun's getting colder every year."
The truth was that Jay Gatsby, of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself. He was a son of God—a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that—and he must be about His Father’s Business, the service of a vast, vulgar and meretricious beauty.”
She was incurably dishonest. She wasn't able to endure being at a disadvantage and, given this unwillingness, I suppose she had begun dealing in subterfuges when she was very young in order to keep that cool, insolent smile turned to the world and yet satisfy the demands of her hard, jaunty body.”
― F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
“He took down his drink as if it were a drop in the bottom of a glass.”
“But there was Jordan beside me, who, unlike Daisy, was too wise ever to carry well-forgotten dreams from age to age.”
Her husband, among various physical accomplishments, had been one of the most powerful ends that ever played football at New Haven-a national figure in a way,
Yet high over the city our line of yellow windows must have contributed their share of human secrecy to the casual watcher in the darkening streets
One autumn night, five years before, they had been walking down the street when the leaves were falling, and they came to a place where there were no trees and the sidewalk was white with moonlight. They stopped here and turned toward each other. Now it was a cool night with that mysterious excitement in it which comes at the two changes of the year. The quiet lights in the houses were humming out into the darkness and there was a stir and bustle among the stars. Out of the corner of his eye Gatsby saw that the blocks of the sidewalks really formed a ladder and mounted to a secret place above the trees - he could climb to it, if he climbed alone, and once there he could suck on the pap of life, gulp down the imcomparable milk of wonder.”
poeticism suggest a spiritual or Biblical language. i.e when God promises the land flowing with milk and honey to the Israelites. He is so full of this vision that he gives it characteristics of a new Eden. Even the imagery of the sidewalk rising to the trees suggest Biblical images (i.e. Tree of Knowledge in Eden" like a ladder to heaven
Flushed with his impassioned gibberish, he saw himself standing alone on the last barrier of civilization.”
"the cocktail table - the only person a single man could linger without looking purposeless and alone"
They were at least agonizingly aware of the easy money in the vicinity and convinced that it was theirs for a few words in the right key.
separated from biological parents
"his parents were shiftless and unsuccessful farm pepople- his imagination never really accepted them as his parents at all"
Unsettling agitation in current agitation
"it might have lasted indefinitely except for the fact that Ella Kaye came on board ... and a week later Dan Cody inhospitably died"
call to adventure-

meeting Daisy while in the military
meeting with mentor:
reaches within himself to come up with a way to attain Daisy (gain wealth by bootlegging)
Special Weapon: His yellow car.
Described using mythical language (i.e. fender spread like wings, labyrinth)
has power when he drives it- he doesn't get a ticket for speeding because he's made an agreement with the commissioner
becomes dangerous when he's not in control of it- Myrtle is killed when Daisy drives
initiation process to prove himself worthy
buying the mansion, throwing the lavish parties, showing Daisy his imported shirts are all done to impress her and gain her affection
Sets out on quest with a specific goal in mind
road trip to New York with goal of getting Daisy to admit she never loved him
tests that must be overcome with wit and skill
- Tom questions him about Oxford, his suspicious relationship with his wife the illegal means through which he acquired wealth illegally, and the way he tarnished Walter Chase's reputation
Unhealable Wound:
Myrtle's death
underworld/ hellish place
the emotional state of uncertainty he must've been in when Daisy didn't look out the window or call
Transformation in hero
he doesn't see his fault until it is too late.
"Whenever you feel like criticizing any one," he told me, "just remember that all the people in this world haven't had the advantages that you've had." He didn't say any more, but we've always been unusually communicative in a reserved way, and I understood that he meant a great deal more than that. In consequence, I'm inclined to reserve all judgments"
It was a rich cream color, bright and there in it’s monstrous length with triumphant hat-boxes and supper-boxes and tool-boxes, and terraced with a labyrinth of wind-shields that mirrored a dozen suns.”
yellow symbolizes happiness, and optimism, of enlightenment and creativity, sunshine and spring. It also represents caution (like in a traffic light.) Thus it could have been used as a means of foreshadowing
on sunday morning while church bells rang in yhe villaged along shor, the world and its mistress returned to gatsbyd house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn
5) Plot: Hero's quest (dragon-slaying)
“Through this twilight universe Daisy began to move again with the season; suddenly she was again keeping half a dozen dates a day with half a dozen men, and drowsing asleep at dawn with the beads and chiffon of an evening dress tangled among dying orchids on the floor beside her bed.”
“His hand took hold of hers, and as she said something low in his ear he turned toward her with a rush of emotion. I think that voice held him most, with its fluctuating, feverish warmth, because it couldn’t be over-dreamed —that voice was a deathless song.”
The Way you portray yourself to be
Sun: symbolic of the mind or intellect, Life, Power, Strength, Energy, Force, Clarity, Self

yellow: fake gold
"yellow cocktail music"
"two girls in twin yellow dresses"
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