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Graphic Arts Prepress

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by

Aliasghar Shah

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Graphic Arts Prepress

From the Lab
for Designers
Print Production
Prepress
Trap
Color
Surprint
Spread
Is the apple really
RED?
Choke
Lighter color either Spreads or Chokes
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Color is a phenomenon of light, and a visual perception using the physical sense of human sight

The human eye is sensitive to a very small portion of the electromagnetic energy spectrum. This portion of the spectrum is referred to as Light energy.
The human eye sees only about 300 to 700 nanometers
Factors of Colors
There are four essential elements in visual experience of color
A colored object
A light source to illuminate the colored object
The human eye as a receptor of the light energy reflected from the object
The human brain to interpret the electrochemical neural impulses sent from the eye

The colored object either absorbs or reflects the incident light that illuminates it.
Visual Experience
The human eye
Color is a three-dimensional phenomenon that is best described using the terminology of Hue, Chroma, and Lightness or Value.
Hue—difference between Red, Green, Blue or Yellow
Chroma—the purity of a color or Hue from its complementary contaminants
Lightness or Value—defines a specific hue of color and provides a variable in the lightness or darkness that the color appears.
Color Perception
3-D Color Model
All color that is reproduced is accomplished through either additive or subtractive color theory
Additive is synonymous with light energy and the direct experience of light
RGB, 3 primary additive colors are added to create white
The combination of RGB when printed on paper appears dark because they block the white light that is reflected from the paper
Not ideal for printing ink pigments
Color Theory
Hue, Chroma, Value
From the Lab
Can BLACK be
BLACKER
The human eye has difficulty comparing color under different light sources
Some colors called Metameric appear to match under one light condition, but are visually different under another.
Standard viewing light is 5000 degrees Kelvin light temperature for the Graphic Arts industry
Metamerism
Type
Typography
A type font is a complete assortment of upper and lower characters, numerals, punctuation and other symbols on one typeface.
Typefaces are grouped into families with similar letterforms and a unique name, such as Garamond.
The parent of the family is the letterform; the relatives are derivations such as roman, bold, italic or italic bold.
Whether type looks bold or italic or appears an way other than normal is called having a style or attribute.
Typography
Fonts, Faces and Families
Decorative
Modern
Old Style
Script
San Serif
Serif
Classifications of type
Typography
Points
72 points = 1 inch
Picas
12 points = 1 pica
6 picas = 1 inch
Inches
Most common type sizes are 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, 36, 42, 60 and 72
Units of Measure
Leading
Space between lines of type
Measured in Points
A measurement of 10/12 means 10 point type and 12 point leading
Typography
Producing Type
Type One
True Type
These have two components to them
Screen Fonts
Printer Fonts
Both the Screen & Printer fonts are linked via a font utility
Screen fonts and Printer fonts are combined into one file
Screen Tints
Every Screen tint has 3 features
Screen Ruling
Expressed in DPI
Dot Area
Expressed in %
Rules
Expressed in Points & Picas or inches
Hues become lighter when screened
What every Graphics Arts Professional
should know about Paper
The Blank Page
Substrate on which an image is printed can represent 35-55% of the final cost of the printed job
Why?
Knowledge of paper assures that the stock selected is the most cost-effective grade needed to meet the demands of a particular print job
Paper can have significant bearing on the appearance of the job
PAPER
Grain
Characteristics of Paper
Cracks when folding against the grain (cross-grain)
Paper folds smoothly with the grain
In books & catalogs, grain should be parallel with the binding edge
Position (direction) of fibers in the paper
The Grain Test
The Fingernail Test
Pinch & slide down the edges of paper with fingernails of the thumb & middle finger—observe what happens
The Bend Test
More resistance in bending against the grain
The Tear Test
A clean, easy tear with the grain
More resistance & a jagged tear against the grain
Thickness
Referred to as a caliper and is measured in mils or thousandths of an inch and expressed as a point size
1 pt = thousandths of an inch or .001 inches.
Determines the thickness of the book
Expressed as the number of pages per inch (ppi) for a given basis weight (for e.g. bulking range for a 50lb Book paper can be from 310 to 800 ppi)
Bulk
Surface Quality
Rough or Smooth
What increases smoothness?
Uncoated—vellum, antique, wove
Coated—matte, dull, gloss, high-gloss
Adequate pick resistance
Water resistance
Paper-ink affinity
Quality of Paper
Surface Quality
Paper-ink affinity
Affects ink drying
Chalking
Rub-off
Set-off
Ink & Varnish holdout
Optical Characteristics
Color
Black Type vs. Color reproduction
Brightness
Amount of light reflected by the paper’s surface
Affects the contrast, brilliance, snap or sparkle of the printed matter
Brightness is measured in % Reflectance of RGB using a Spectrophotometer
Brightness in % Reflectance
Quality of Paper
Optical Characteristics
Opacity
Relates to the show-through of the printed image from the opposite side
Higher opacity is achieved by increasing the caliper of paper
Two-sidedness
Wire side vs. felt side
Ink absorption may differ
Quality of Paper
Basis Weight
Grades of Paper
Weight in pounds of 500 sheets (a ream) of paper in its basic size
Book—25 x 38—coated or uncoaded
Bond—17 x 22
Text—25 x 38
Cover—20 x 26
Bristol—22 ½ x 28 ½
Newsprint—24 x 36
Basic Sizes
The Lingo
Quantity
Sheet or Roll Size (depending on the printing process)
Grain Direction
Long or Short? (depends on how the paper is being fed into the press)
Basis Weight
Color
Brand Name
Texture or Finish
Grade
Specifying Paper
When ordering Paper for a Print Job
Always order paper samples both printed and unprinted
Create a Mock-up of the Job using the exact paper
Why? For Binding & calculating Postage
Always do an ink draw-down
To test color of ink on the specific paper
Things to Consider
From the Lab
Overprint vs. Knockout
Printing Processes
Relief
Intaglio
Planography
Porus
Letterpress
All Printing Processes are concerned with two types of areas on the final printPrinting or Image AreaNon-printing or Non-Image AreaEach Process has a means of separating these areas
The Printing areas are on a plane surface and the non-printing areas are below the surface. Example:
Flexography
The Non-Printing areas are on a plane surface and the printing areas are etched or engraved below the surface
The Printing areas are on fine mesh screens through which ink can penetrate and the non-image areas are a stencil over the screen to block the flow of ink in those areas
Gravure
The printing and non-printing areas are on the same plane surfaceThe difference between them is maintained chemically
AKA Lithography
From the Lab
Prepress
Digital
Layout
Imposition
Technical Constraints
Paper comes in Stock Sizes
So do printing plates
Insisting on Bastard sizes and non standard shapes can be wasteful of resources
Folding machines have limitations too
Anatomy of a Page
Portrait vs. Landscape
Pagination
Work and turn
Work and tumble
Finishing & Binding
Imaging in Bindery
Scoring, Perforating & Die Cutting
Kiss Die Cutting or Kiss Cut
Labels & decals
Embossing & Debossing
Take print into 3rd dimension by adding depth
Paper is pressed between a mold
Produced under heat for smoothness and shine
Foil Stamping
Hot
Cold
Standards
Specifications
Methods
applies to any definite rule, principle, or measure established by authority custom, or general consent
It is a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work
a way, technique, or process of or for doing something
GRACoL
SWOP
G7
ISO
What does it take to produce a printed piece?
Page Layout
Typography
Tints
Images
Raster Images
Vector Images
Design
Press
Post Press
Fulfillment
Prepress
Pre-flight
Fonts
Colors
Spot
Process
Document Print Specs
Color Separation
RIP
Printing Processes
Platen
Ink
Substrate
Binding
Folding
Scoring
Stitching
Collating
Trimming/cutting
Finishing
Embossing
Stamping
Die-Cutting
Postal Regulations
Freight
Full transcript