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History - Treaties 4-7 (1871-1908)

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AARON WARNER

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of History - Treaties 4-7 (1871-1908)

Treaties 4-7 (1871-1908)
Treaty 4
This treaty was initiated by Indians and Métis and was established between Queen Victoria, the Cree and Saulteaux First Nations. The areas covered by this treaty represent most of the southern Saskatchewan, a bit of what is now western Manitoba, and south-eastern Alberta. The first signings were conducted at Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan on September 15, 1874. Additional signings continued until September 1877.
Treaty 5
This treaty was first established in September 1875 between Queen Victoria, Saulteaux, Swampy Cree non-treaty tribes and the peoples around Lake Winnipeg in the District of Keewatin. The treaty covered most of central and northern Manitoba, with a few parts of Saskatchewan and Ontario. The treaty was completed in two rounds. The first round was from September 1875 to September 1876. The second round was from 1908 to 1910. The reasons for Treaty 5 were the same as Treaty 4.
Treaty 7
This treaty was an agreement between Queen Victoria and several tribes, mostly Blackfoot and First Nations tribes in what is now the southern part of Alberta. It ended on September 22, 1877. This agreement was signed at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River, at the Siksika Nation reserve, which is about 100km east of Calgary. Chief Crowfoot was one of the signatories to Treaty 7. This was one of the 11 Numbered Treaties signed between First Nations and the Crown between 1871 and 1921. Another signing of this treaty happened on December 4, 1877 to accommodate some of the Blackfoot leaders who were absent at the first signing.
Treaty 6
This treaty was an agreement between the Canadian monarch, the Plain and Wood Cree, Assiniboine and the other tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River. The area agreed upon by the Plain and Wood Cree represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The treaty signings began in August 1876, with adhesions added in central Saskatchewan in the Montreal Lake area.
Reasons for the Treaty
The reasons for this treaty were that the Government of Canada negotiated the first five Numbered Treaties to gain land from the First Nations for settlement, agriculture and industry. The Prime Minister John A. Macdonald also saw that the land was necessary to be used to complete a transcontinental railway.
Terms of the Treaty
Each family of 5 that was covered by Treaty 4 would receive 1 square mile of land, which they could sell back to the Government of Canada for compensation
Each person received $5 a year and a gift of clothing
A chief would receive $25 immediately with an additional $25 per year, along with a coat and a silver medal
Every 3 years, a chief would receive a new suit of clothing
4 people of each band would also receive $15 a year and a new suit of clothing every 3 years
The people would also receive farming tools portioned by family
The tribe was to receive powder, shot, ball and twine, in all to the value of $750 each year
Each reserve would get a school when they desired a teacher
The people would also have the right to hunt and fish on all the land that was given up, except the land used for agriculture, forestry, and mining or on any other land that was claimed
Reasons for the Treaty
The reason was that at that time, the buffalo were disappearing at a very fast rate. The chiefs realized that if they did not sign a treaty with the Crown they might starve. Another reason for the signing of this treaty was that a smallpox epidemic had recently gone through the area and killed many of the Cree.
Terms of the Treaty
The First Nations people gave up their customary title to the land under common law in exchange for provisions from the government
In exchange, certain areas were reserved
These lands can be taken or sold by the government, but only with the permission of the native's peoples or with compensation
In addition to this the government promised to open schools for Indian children and restrict the sale of alcohol on reserves
Continued
Each native family of 5 covered by Treaty 6 also received 4.45 square miles (11.5 square km) of land, which could be sold back to the Government of Canada for compensation
Each person immediately received $12 with an additional $5 a year
The chief and other band officers would receive a salary of $25 per year with one horse, one harness and one weapon or 2 carts
The people would also receive $1 500 per year for ammunition and fishing net twine
Each family was to be given an entire suite of agricultural tools including ploughs, axes, hoes and several bags of seed as well as a payment at the Indian agent's discretion of up $1 000 per year for the first 3 years after a reserve was surveyed
Unfortunately, most of these terms were not kept as promised by the government. That left the natives helpless and reliant on the government for support.
Terms of the Treaty
This treaty established a reserved, promised annual payments and/or provisions from the Queen to the tribes and promised that hunting and trapping rights on the "tract surrendered" would continue. In exchange the tribes gave up their right to their traditional territory, where they had been recognized as the owners.
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The Main Establishers
The Main Establishers
The Plain are mainly known as The Marshwas and they were a political group in the French National Convention during the French Revolution.
The Blackfoot is the collective name of three First Nation band governments in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. In the 1870s, they signed treaties with both the United States and Canada, giving up most of their lands in exchange for food and medical aid, as well as help in learning to farm. Nevertheless, the Blackfoot have worked to maintain their traditional language and culture.
Crowfoot

was a chief of the Siksika First Nation. He is well known for his involvement in Treaty Number 7 and his contributions to the Blackfoot nation. He tried to obtain peace instead of warfare.
The Main Establishers
Crowfoot
Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria was the queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from June 20, 1837-January 22, 1901.
The Cree
The Cree are the largest group of First Nations in Canada. They had over 200 000 members and 135 registered bands. The basic unit of organization for the people in the Cree was called the lodge. It is a group of about 8 to 12 people, who are usually made up of 2 families but have related married couples. A band is a group of lodges who moved and hunted together.
The Saulteaux First Nations
The Saulteaux First Nations is an Anishinaabe First Nations band government. Their reserves are located near Cochin, Saskatchewan.
The Swampy Cree
Swampy Cree is a division of the Cree First Nation. They occupy lands located in Northern Manitoba, along the Saskatchewan River in north-eastern Saskatchewan, which is along the Hudson Bay and it is next to the lands south and west as well as the territories along the shores of Hudson and James Bay in Ontario. They are geographically and culturally split into 2 main groups. Because of this, they speak 2 types of the Swampy Cree language. One group is the Western Swampy Cree. The second group is the Eastern Swampy Cree, which is also called the Western James Bay Cree.
The Plain
The Assiniboine
The Assiniboine (also called the Assiniboin people or the Hohe), are a Sioux First Nation. It is a division of the Northern Great Plains of North America. In the present time, they are centered in Saskatchewan and also populated parts of Alberta.
The Blackfoot
Map of All the Treaties
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